Thursday, June 14, 2018

PRO/PL> Stripe rust, wheat - Australia: (VI) new strain

STRIPE RUST, WHEAT - AUSTRALIA: (VI) NEW STRAIN
***********************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>

Date: Tue 12 Jun 2018
Source: Queensland Country Life [edited]
<https://www.queenslandcountrylife.com.au/story/5463417/new-rust-pathogen-found/?cs=4713>


Plant pathologists identified new strains of stripe rust from samples
sent in last year [2017] from Victoria. The new rust pathotype is
believed to be the first [to overcome] the YR 33 gene which has formed
an important part of plant resistance to stripe rust in several widely
grown wheat varieties.

It [also] marks the 1st time a new stripe rust pathogen has been
identified [in Australia] for 7 years. While farmers are not expecting
a high disease load this year [2018] due to the dry summer and autumn
meaning lack of a green bridge for rust to survive on, [they] are
encouraged to closely monitor for rust.

The samples [were] part of the Australian Cereal Rust Survey, a Grains
Research and Development Corporation (GRDC) investment. Dr Grant
Hollaway, Agriculture Victoria, said farmers should continue to
participate in the survey to help detect any changes in rust
pathogens. "Stripe rust found on any variety of wheat should be
submitted for pathotype analysis [which] enables industry to be on the
front foot with potential rust outbreaks and the detection of new
pathotype mutations and incursions as soon as they occur."

[Byline: Gregor Heard]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[Stripe rust (also called yellow rust) of cereals is caused by the
fungus _Puccinia striiformis_. The disease affects wheat (_Triticum
aestivum_), durum wheat (_T. turgidum_), some barley varieties,
triticale (wheat/rye hybrids) and a number of wild grasses. It causes
yellow stripes on leaves which leads to loss of photosynthetic ability
and plant vigour, as well as stunting of plants. Yield losses of 40 to
100 per cent have been reported in wheat.

Spores are wind dispersed in several cycles during the cropping
season. Grasses and volunteer crop plants may generate a "green
bridge", providing inoculum for the next crop cycle. Disease
monitoring is important so that timely action can be taken to limit
the spread of the pathogen as well as build-up of inoculum. Disease
management may include the use of resistant varieties, fungicide
applications and control of pathogen reservoirs. Monitoring and
resistance breeding programmes have been established in different
regions for early detection of new rust strains and to attempt to stay
ahead of pathogen evolution.

While stem rust (_Puccinia graminis_) poses a huge potential threat to
world wheat production, stripe rust is currently causing the most
damage to wheat crops on a global scale. New strains of both rusts
with increased virulence and additional fungicide resistances have
been reported in recent years from wheat-growing areas worldwide.
Climate warming allowing survival of wheat rusts on green bridges into
higher latitudes is another example of pathogens extending their range
due to climate change (see also ProMED-mail posts
http://promedmail.org/post/20141024.2895414,
http://promedmail.org/post/20120809.1235745,
http://promedmail.org/post/20090914.3230,
http://promedmail.org/post/20110718.2172). Projects for double
resistance breeding to manage both stripe and stem rusts
simultaneously are in progress (see ProMED-mail post
http://promedmail.org/post/20120831.1274190).

Maps
Australia (with states):
<http://ontheworldmap.com/australia/large-detailed-topographical-map-of-australia.jpg>
and
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/288>

Pictures
Stripe rust symptoms on wheat:
<http://fyi.uwex.edu/fieldcroppathology/files/2015/05/Stripe-Rust-1.jpg>,
<http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/php/brief/2005/stripe/image/wheat3.jpg>,
and
<https://goo.gl/K5FiF1>
Stripe rust on barley:
<http://media.padil.gov.au/species/136639/7736-large.jpg> and
<http://www.planthealthaustralia.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Barley-stripe-rust-1.jpg>
Ryegrass with stripe rust:
<http://www.science.oregonstate.edu/bpp/Plant_Clinic/images/ryegrass_stripe%20rust.jpg>
and
<http://plant-pest-advisory.rutgers.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/photo-15-e1378922274640.jpg>

Links
Additional news story:
<http://www.sunraysiadaily.com.au/story/5447430/stripe-rust-watch-on-for-grain-growers-after-new-pathotype-detected/>
Information on wheat stripe rust:
<http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/prm11383>,
<http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/158964/stripe-rust-in-wheat.pdf>,
and
<http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/r730100511.html>
_P. striiformis_ life cycle:
<https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms3673/figures/1>
Stripe rust global tracking, current race analysis & distribution:
<https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2017.01057/full>
(review),
<http://wheatrust.org/yellow-rust-tools-maps-and-charts/>, and
<http://rusttracker.cimmyt.org/?page_id=9>
_P. striiformis_ taxonomy and synonyms:
<http://www.indexfungorum.org/Names/NamesRecord.asp?RecordID=227064>
and
<http://www.speciesfungorum.org/Names/SynSpecies.asp?RecordID=227064>
Global Rust Initiative:
<http://www.globalrust.org/>
- Mod.DHA]

[See Also:
Stripe rust, wheat - India: (PB) alert
http://promedmail.org/post/20180301.5659889
2017
----
Stripe rust, wheat - UK: (02) Red 24 & Blue 7, new strains
http://promedmail.org/post/20171023.5397303
Stripe rust, wheat - UK: new strains
http://promedmail.org/post/20170914.5317650
Stripe rust, wheat - Canada, USA
http://promedmail.org/post/20170608.5091941
Stripe rust, durum wheat - Mexico: new strain
http://promedmail.org/post/20170413.4967401
Stem & stripe rusts, wheat - Europe, Asia, Africa: new races
http://promedmail.org/post/20170206.4820305
2016
----
Stripe, stem & leaf rusts, wheat - Ethiopia
http://promedmail.org/post/20161117.4637042
Stripe rust, wheat - UK (02): new strains susp
http://promedmail.org/post/20160711.4337095
Stripe rust, wheat - USA: new strains susp
http://promedmail.org/post/20160610.4277039
Stripe rust, wheat - UK: Kranich strain, 1st rep
http://promedmail.org/post/20160219.4033809
Stripe rust, wheat - India: (PB) alert
http://promedmail.org/post/20160106.3916044
2015
----
Stripe rust, wheat - Europe: origin of strains
http://promedmail.org/post/20150717.3517395
Fusarium head blight & stripe rust, wheat - USA: (MO)
http://promedmail.org/post/20150713.3507131
Stripe rust, wheat - USA: (NE)
http://promedmail.org/post/20150612.3432029
Stripe rust, wheat - Pakistan, Mexico
http://promedmail.org/post/20150530.3396665
Stripe rust, wheat - India: (JK)
http://promedmail.org/post/20150323.3247875
2014
----
Stripe rust, cereals - France
http://promedmail.org/post/20140616.2543141
Stripe rust, wheat - Spain: (CL) Warrior strain
http://promedmail.org/post/20140523.2489629
Stripe rust, wheat - UK: Warrior strain, alert
http://promedmail.org/post/20140122.2224928
Stripe rust, wheat - India: (PB, HR)
http://promedmail.org/post/20140109.2162693
2011
----
Stripe rust, barley - Australia: (NS)
http://promedmail.org/post/20111103.3270
Fungal diseases, cereals - Australia: (eastern, south) alert
http://promedmail.org/post/20110218.0531
and additional items on stripe rust in the archives]
.................................................sb/dha/mj/jh
*##########################################################*
************************************************************
ProMED-mail makes every effort to verify the reports that
are posted, but the accuracy and completeness of the
information, and of any statements or opinions based
thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in
using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
and its associated service providers shall not be held
responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any
damages incurred as a result of use or reliance upon posted
or archived material.
************************************************************
Donate to ProMED-mail. Details available at:
<http://www.isid.org/donate/>
************************************************************
Visit ProMED-mail's web site at <http://www.promedmail.org>.
Send all items for posting to: promed@promedmail.org (NOT to
an individual moderator). If you do not give your full name
name and affiliation, it may not be posted. You may unsub-
scribe at <http://ww4.isid.org/promedmail/subscribe.php>.
For assistance from a human being, send mail to:
<postmaster@promedmail.org>.
############################################################
############################################################

List-Unsubscribe: http://ww4.isid.org/promedmail/subscribe.php

0 comments:

Post a Comment