Monday, July 9, 2018

PRO/AH/EDR> Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (09): (VA) EEE & WNV equine vaccination

EASTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS - USA (09): (VIRGINIA) EEE & WNV EQUINE
VACCINATION WARNING
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A ProMED-mail post
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International Society for Infectious Diseases
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Date: Fri 6 Jul 2018
Source: The Horse [edited]
<https://thehorse.com/159202/mosquito-season-arrives-in-virginia-owners-urged-to-vaccinate-horses/>


Virginia's 2018 mosquito season is proving to be one of the worst in
years, animal health officials said as they encouraged owners to
ensure their horses' EEE and WNV vaccines are up to date.

Recent deluges of rain have created stagnant pools of water perfect
for mosquito breeding, while cooler temperatures have helped to slow
the maturation of larvae, delaying the pests' season this year [2018].
"Now it has hit in full force, and horses are at risk of contracting
mosquito-borne diseases such as eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and
West Nile virus (WNV)," said Charles Broaddus, DVM, Virginia
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (VDACS).

A viral disease, EEE affects the central nervous system and is
transmitted to horses by infected mosquitoes. Clinical signs of EEE
include moderate to high fever, depression, lack of appetite, cranial
nerve deficits (facial paralysis, tongue weakness, difficulty
swallowing), behavioral changes (aggression, self-mutilation, or
drowsiness), gait abnormalities, or severe central nervous system
signs, such as head-pressing, circling, blindness, and seizures. The
course of EEE can be swift, with death occurring 2-3 days after onset
of clinical signs despite intensive care; fatality rates reach 75-80%
among horses. Horses that survive might have long-lasting impairments
and neurological problems.

Clinical signs for WNV, also transmitted by bites from infected
mosquitoes, include flulike signs, where the horse seems mildly
anorexic and depressed; fine and coarse muscle and skin fasciculation;
hyperesthesia; changes in mentation (mentality), when horses look like
they are daydreaming or "just not with it;" occasional somnolence
(drowsiness); propulsive walking (driving or pushing forward, often
without control); and "spinal" signs, including asymmetrical weakness.
Some horses show asymmetrical or symmetrical ataxia. Equine mortality
rates can be as high as 30-40%.

There is no cure for either disease; however, veterinarians can help
horses recover with supportive care in some cases.

The VDACS is encouraging horse owners to check with their
veterinarians and if she or he recommends vaccination, the time to do
it is now. "Both the WNV and EEE vaccine are highly effective in
minimizing disease, if given appropriately," said Broaddus.

Horses that have been vaccinated in past years will need an annual
booster shot; in areas with a prolonged mosquito season, veterinarians
might recommend 2 boosters annually, one in the spring and another in
the fall. However, if an owner did not vaccinate their animal in
previous years, the horse will need the 2-shot vaccination series
within a 3-6-week period.

In addition to vaccinations, horse owners also need to reduce mosquito
populations and their possible breeding areas. Recommendations include
removing stagnant water sources, keeping animals inside during the
bugs' feeding times, which are typically early in the morning and
evening, and applying mosquito repellents approved for equine use.

Humans cannot become infected with EEE or WNV by handling an infected
horse, nor can a horse acquire the virus directly from another
infected horse. The presence of an infected horse in the area
indicates that mosquitoes carrying the EEE or WNV viruses are present,
however, and those insects pose a threat to both humans and horses.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[Eastern equine encephalitis is not as common in Virginia as it is in
Florida, but it is still a lethal infection for horses. Owners must
not procrastinate. Compared to the social and economic values of a
horse, the vaccination is extremely cheap with a high benefit cost
ratio, to be academic. But who wants their beloved horse to die? West
Nile virus, like eastern equine encephalitis, is preventable by a
vaccine, as mentioned in the article. The 2 are usually in
combination, so it is only a single injection to prevent these
diseases. Injection needs to be given at an initial time and again
about 21-30 days later. It should then be given annually or every 6
months, depending upon your location or the recommendation of your
veterinarian. - Mod.MHJ

HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Virginia, United States: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/247>]

[See Also:
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (08): (FL) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20180707.5893166
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (07): (FL) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20180617.5860630
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (06): (FL)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180601.5832086
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (05): (FL) equine, avian
http://promedmail.org/post/20180522.5812624
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (04): (FL) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20180501.5777858
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (03): (FL) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20180427.5771196
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (02): (FL) equine, avian
http://promedmail.org/post/20180313.5684578
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA: (FL)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180302.5662118
2016
----
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (14): (FL,VA) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160726.4369305
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (11): (VA) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160712.4341086
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (10): (VA) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160710.4336373
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (07): (FL,SC,VA) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160630.4319558
2015
----
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (18): (VA): equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20151004.3690729
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (02): (VA) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20150708.3495693
2014
----
West Nile virus - USA (08): (VA) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20140927.2811016
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (22): (VA, MI) equine, emu
http://promedmail.org/post/20140921.2792362
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (09): (VA) cassowary, comment, RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20140808.2672265
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (08): (VA) cassowary, zoo
http://promedmail.org/post/20140807.2669161
2013
----
West Nile virus - USA (09): (VA, KY) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20130914.1943518
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (19): (VA) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20130911.1936136
2010
----
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (22): (VA, MA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20100820.2911
2009
----
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - USA (11): (FL, VA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20090907.3157
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine, alpaca - USA: (NC,VA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20090828.3034
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - USA (09): (VA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20090813.2883
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - USA (05): (MO, VA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20090714.2507
2003
----
Eastern equine encephalitis, human - USA (VA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20030929.2455
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - USA (VA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20030710.1690]
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