Wednesday, July 4, 2018

PRO/AH/EDR> Nipah virus - India (14): (KL)

NIPAH VIRUS - INDIA (14): (KERALA)
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Date: Tue 3 Jul 2018
Source: MediBulletin [edited]
<https://medibulletin.com/2018/07/03/bats-indicted-in-kerala-nipah-outbreak-icmr-sends-paper-to-lancet/>


Putting to rest suspense about the source of the Nipah virus
infections in Kerala, scientists from the Indian Council of Medical
Research have now found the virus in bats that were caught from the
affected areas. At least 17 people died of Nipah infection in
Mallapuram and Kozhikode districts of Kerala over April and May
[2018].

While the 1st batch of bats caught from the well in Kozhikode in the
house from where the 1st case was reported, had tested negative; of
the 2nd batch of 52 fruit bats, 19.2 percent were found to carry the
virus. The findings will be published in The Lancet. Health minister J
P Nadda was informed about the findings in a meeting last week.

In the meeting, scientists from ICMR and public health officials also
told the minister that circumstances have now improved enough for the
state to be declared Nipah free. The incubation period of Nipah is 5
to 14 days. The last case was in May [2018] and now that 2 incubation
periods have elapsed without any fresh cases, the specter of the
dreaded disease seems to be finally receding.

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Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[It is good to learn that there have been no additional cases of Nipah
virus infection in Kerala. As was mentioned earlier, it is not
surprising that the bats taken from the well were negative for the
virus. Giant fruit bats (flying foxes genus _Pteropus_), the reservoir
of Nipah virus in Bangladesh and Malaysia, do not roost in wells. They
roost in tree tops. The species sampled in the 2nd batch of bats was
not mentioned, but were likely flying foxes. It is fortunate that
virus positive bats were found in this 2nd sampling. As commented
earlier, bats "may only be infectious for a week or 2, and then they
clear the virus and they're no longer infectious," said Jonathan
Epstein, a veterinarian and epidemiologist at EcoHealth Alliance, New
York, who has, for over a decade, studied Nipah outbreaks and the bats
that cause them, in Malaysia, India and Bangladesh. "That's why these
outbreaks are relatively rare events, given the fact that these bats
are so abundant and so common but very few of them are ever actually
shedding virus at a given time."

Epstein and others conducted an experimental study of _Pteropus_ bats
in 2011 and found that the time window in which the bats are capable
of passing on the infection to other animals or humans is quite small.
In fact, the virus can't be found in experimentally infected bats
after a few weeks. The few bats in an infected population that could
be shedding the virus may be doing so in low quantities and for a
short duration.

"Finding that bats don't have Nipah virus at the time of sampling
certainly doesn't mean that it didn't come from those bats,
particularly _P. medius_," Epstein said. "The overwhelming abundance
of evidence really shows that this bat is the reservoir for Nipah
virus on the subcontinent in Bangladesh and in India." - Mod.TY

Maps of India can be accessed at:
<http://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/india/india-political-map.htm>

HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Kerala State, India: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/308>]

[See Also:
Nipah virus - India (13): (KL)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180611.5851326
Nipah virus - India (12) http://promedmail.org/post/20180603.5836554
Nipah virus - India (11): (KL)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180602.5835342
Nipah virus - India (10): (KL)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180602.5833137
Nipah virus - India (09): (WB ex KL) susp.
http://promedmail.org/post/20180530.5829184
Nipah virus - India (08): (KR ex KL) susp.
http://promedmail.org/post/20180529.5826769
Nipah virus - India (07) http://promedmail.org/post/20180528.5822566
Nipah virus - India (06): (KL,KA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180526.5819777
Nipah virus - India (05): (KL,TG)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180525.5817917
Nipah virus - India (04): (KL, KA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180524.5815473
Nipah virus - India (03): (KL) conf.
http://promedmail.org/post/20180522.5812214
Nipah virus - India (02): (KL) conf
http://promedmail.org/post/20180521.5809003
Nipah virus - India: (KL) susp
http://promedmail.org/post/20180521.5807513
2007
----
Nipah virus, fatal - India (West Bengal) (02)
http://promedmail.org/post/20070511.1514
Nipah virus, fatal - India (West Bengal)
http://promedmail.org/post/20070508.1484
Undiagnosed deaths - Bangladesh, India (04)
http://promedmail.org/post/20070504.1451]
.................................................ty/ao/jh
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