Sunday, July 1, 2018

PRO/AH/EDR> West Nile virus (07): Americas (USA)

WEST NILE VIRUS (07): AMERICAS (USA)
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A ProMED-mail post
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International Society for Infectious Diseases
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Date: Sat 30 Jun 2018
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]
<http://outbreaknewstoday.com/new-york-city-reports-1st-west-nile-virus-case-year-manhattan-resident-virus-makes-earliest-appearance-89064/>


New York City health officials have reported the 1st human West Nile
virus (WNV) case of the year [2018] in a Manhattan resident. The
patient, who is over 50 years of age, was hospitalized earlier this
month [June 2018] with encephalitis and has since been discharged.

The Health Department notes that this is the earliest identification
of a human case of WNV in New York City since surveillance began in
1999. Human cases of West Nile virus occur each year in New York City,
and most cases are identified between late July and October. West Nile
virus activity varies every year.

In addition, the 1st collection of mosquitoes infected with the virus
of the 2018 season was also reported.

"The findings from our mosquito surveillance and the early West Nile
virus case serve as vital reminders that mosquito season is here and
that all New Yorkers should take precautions to protect themselves and
their families from mosquito bites," said Health Commissioner Dr Mary
T Bassett. "We have one of the best mosquito control programs in the
country, but West Nile virus is here to stay. To reduce the chance of
infection, all New Yorkers -- including residents living in Manhattan
-- should use mosquito repellent, cover arms and legs when outdoors,
get rid of standing water, and install window screens."

First discovered in Uganda in 1937, West Nile virus is a
mosquito-borne disease that can cause encephalitis, a brain
inflammation.

It was first detected in North America in 1999 [in New York City], and
has since spread across the continental United States and Canada.

Most people get infected with West Nile virus by the bite of an
infected mosquito. Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on
infected birds. Infected mosquitoes can then spread the virus to
humans and other animals.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),
approximately 80 percent of people (about 4 out of 5) who are infected
with WNV will not show any symptoms at all. Up to 20 percent of the
people who become infected have symptoms such as fever, headache, and
body aches, nausea, vomiting, and sometimes swollen lymph glands or a
skin rash on the chest, stomach and back. Symptoms can last for as
short as a few days, though even healthy people have become sick for
several weeks.

About one in 150 people infected with WNV will develop severe illness.
The severe symptoms can include high fever, headache, neck stiffness,
stupor, disorientation, coma, tremors, convulsions, muscle weakness,
vision loss, numbness, and paralysis. These symptoms may last several
weeks, and neurological effects may be permanent.

There is no specific treatment for WNV infection.

In a very small number of cases, West Nile virus has been spread
through blood transfusions, organ transplants, and from mother to baby
during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding, according to the CDC.

[Byline: Robert Harriman]

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Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
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[ProMED-mail has not routinely posted human cases of West Nile (WN)
virus infection since it became established in the continental 48
states, following its introduction into New York City in 1999.
However, this case so unusually early in the transmission season
serves as a warning of possible early transmission in the city and
region. Health authorities in New York and the East Coast of the USA
are doubtless on alert for appearance of new human cases and presence
of the virus in vector _Culex_ mosquitoes as well. A vaccine is
available for equine animals but not for people. People should avoid
mosquito bites. Owners of horses and other equine animals are well
advised to vaccinate their animals against WN virus as soon as
possible. - Mod.TY

HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Manhattan, New York, United States:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/37978>]

[See Also:
2017
----
West Nile virus - Americas (19): USA (CA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20171120.5453964
West Nile virus - Americas (18): USA (CA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20171030.5412499
West Nile virus - Americas (13): USA (CA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170930.5351220
West Nile virus - Americas (06): USA (WA, CA) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20170813.5246606
West Nile virus - Americas (03): USA (CA) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20170717.5183561
2016
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West Nile Virus - Americas (22): USA, equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20161012.4553788
West Nile virus - Americas (12): USA (CA,MN) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20160824.4437182]
.................................................ty/mj
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