Wednesday, July 4, 2018

PRO/EDR> Influenza (21): Brazil, viral stability

INFLUENZA (21): BRAZIL, VIRAL STABILITY
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[1] Brazil update
Date: Thu 28 Jun 2018
Source: Folha de S. Paulo [edited]
<https://www1.folha.uol.com.br/internacional/en/scienceandhealth/2018/06/1973163-cases-of-flu-more-than-double-with-608-deaths-already-registered-in-brazil.shtml>


Data from the newest epidemiological bulletin from the Ministry of
Health indicate that the country has had 3558 registered cases of
influenza, with 608 recorded deaths -- more than twice as many as
during the same period in 2017. The document totals registrations of
cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome from the beginning of the
year through [23 Jun 2018].

Of these cases, nearly 60 percent were attributed to H1N1, the strain
of the virus most likely to result in complications.

During the same period in 2017, 1459 cases of the flu were recorded
resulting in 237 deaths -- which represent an increase of 143 percent.
At the time, the predominant virus was H3N2, a subtype that also
causes serious complications, especially among the elderly.

As of the beginning of this month [June 2018], the country had
registered 2315 cases of the flu resulting in 274 deaths -- 74 percent
in patients with at least one high risk factor, like the elderly (236
deaths), people with cardiovascular disease (143 deaths) and those
with diabetes (109 cases). Until last week [week ending 1 Jul 2018],
46 children under 5 years of age had been fatal victims, 3 times as
many as were registered during the same period in 2017.

This total is still lower than what was recorded in 2016, when 12 174
cases of the flu resulting in 2220 deaths were registered during the
year -- the highest number recorded since the pandemic of 2009.

The national vaccination campaign ended on [Fri 22 Jun 2018] without
having reached the goal set for it by the Ministry of Health.

As of [Mon 25 Jun 2018], only 86 percent of the target population
(pregnant women and those having recently given birth, the elderly,
infants and children between the ages of 6 months and 5 years,
health-care workers, teachers and professors, indigenous people, and
the incarcerated) had been vaccinated, leaving 6.8 million people
unvaccinated.

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Communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
<promed@promedmail.org>

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[2] Viral Stability
Date: Tue 3 Jul 2018
Source: CIDRAP [edited]
<http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/influenza-virus-infectivity-retained-aerosols-and-droplets-independent-relative-humidity>


Citation
--------
Kormuth KA, Lin K, Prussin AJ II, et al. Influenza virus infectivity
is retained in aerosols and droplets independent of relative humidity.
J Infect Dis. 2018 Jun 7. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiy221. [Epub ahead of
print]

Abstract
--------
Pandemic and seasonal influenza viruses can be transmitted through
aerosols and droplets, in which viruses must remain stable and
infectious across a wide range of environmental conditions. Using
humidity-controlled chambers, we studied the impact of relative
humidity on the stability of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus in
suspended aerosols and stationary droplets. Contrary to the prevailing
paradigm that humidity modulates the stability of respiratory viruses
in aerosols, we found that viruses supplemented with material from the
apical surface of differentiated primary human airway epithelial cells
remained equally infectious for 1 hour at all relative humidities
tested. This sustained infectivity was observed in both fine aerosols
and stationary droplets. Our data suggest, for the first time, that
influenza viruses remain highly stable and infectious in aerosols
across a wide range of relative humidities. These results have
significant implications for understanding the mechanisms of
transmission of influenza and its seasonality.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[

HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Brazil: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/6>]

[See Also:
Influenza (19): WHO global update, new drug
http://promedmail.org/post/20180628.5880424
Influenza (18): WHO global update, Maldives
http://promedmail.org/post/20180602.5827327
Influenza (17): India, Australia
http://promedmail.org/post/20180524.5813105
Influenza (16): Honduras, seasonal
http://promedmail.org/post/20180522.5807724
Influenza (15): WHO global update, Brazil
http://promedmail.org/post/20180517.5798872
Influenza (14): WHO global update
http://promedmail.org/post/20180419.5754241
Influenza (13): WHO global update
http://promedmail.org/post/20180407.5728024
Influenza (12): USA, seasonal, 2nd wave influenza B
http://promedmail.org/post/20180329.5717195
Influenza (11): Netherlands, seasonal reassortant A(H1N2) identified
http://promedmail.org/post/20180322.5702553
Influenza (10): WHO global update, Kenya
http://promedmail.org/post/20180310.5672765
Influenza (09): WHO global update, vaccine recommendations
http://promedmail.org/post/20180225.5644013
Influenza (08): Nepal (Kathmandu) post influenza cough, type B
association susp. http://promedmail.org/post/20180220.5636924
Influenza (07): seasonal, H1N1, research
http://promedmail.org/post/20180215.5627287
Influenza (06): WHO global update, universal vaccine
http://promedmail.org/post/20180208.5610688
Influenza (05): seasonal, multiple locations
http://promedmail.org/post/20180121.5570116
Influenza (04): WHO global update, multiple locations, preparedness
http://promedmail.org/post/20180113.5557168
Influenza (03): Asia (Pakistan, Nepal)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180111.5551430
Influenza (02): increased seasonal activity, USA, Europe, Asia
http://promedmail.org/post/20180104.5534440
Influenza (01): Pakistan (PB) H1N1
http://promedmail.org/post/20180101.5531217
2017
----
Influenza (35): WHO global update, USA, Canada, research agenda,
treatment http://promedmail.org/post/20171227.5521739
Influenza (34): WHO global update
http://promedmail.org/post/20171129.5472374
Influenza (33): WHO global update
http://promedmail.org/post/20171117.5446933
Influenza (32): swine origin, human-animal interface, WHO
http://promedmail.org/post/20171115.5445138
Influenza (31): USA (NE), swine origin, H3N2v
http://promedmail.org/post/20171107.5426321
Influenza (30): India, H1N1
http://promedmail.org/post/20171027.5404830
Influenza (20): USA (ND) swine origin H3N2v
http://promedmail.org/post/20170818.5254537
Influenza (10): WHO global update
http://promedmail.org/post/20170413.4962706
Influenza (05): WHO global update
http://promedmail.org/post/20170214.4837368
Influenza (04): Italy, H1N1, indirect exp to swine
http://promedmail.org/post/20170203.4812459
Influenza (03): WHO global update
http://promedmail.org/post/20170126.4792948
Influenza (02): WHO global update, national reports
http://promedmail.org/post/20170116.4767472
Influenza (01): Canada, H3N2v
http://promedmail.org/post/20170102.4731669
2016
----
Influenza (51): WHO global update, seasonal, country reports
http://promedmail.org/post/20161228.4727494
Influenza (50): WHO Global update, Costa Rica, seasonal
http://promedmail.org/post/20161217.4691931
Influenza (40): Mexico (AG) seasonal surge
http://promedmail.org/post/20161014.4559640
Influenza (30): WHO global update, seasonal
http://promedmail.org/post/20160726.4370090
Influenza (20): seasonal, WHO global update
http://promedmail.org/post/20160421.4173579
Influenza (10): WHO update, risk assessment, Ukraine, E Europe, Middle
East H1N1 http://promedmail.org/post/20160210.4007591
Influenza (01): India (MH) H1N1
http://promedmail.org/post/20160103.3907597
and other items in the archives]
.................................................uba/ao/jh
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