Thursday, August 23, 2018

PRO/AH/EDR> African swine fever - Asia (06): China (ZJ) domestic swine, spread

AFRICAN SWINE FEVER - ASIA (06): CHINA (ZHEJIANG) DOMESTIC SWINE,
SPREAD
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In this posting:
[1] 4th ASF outbreak in China - Zhejiang province
[2] ASF in China reviewed

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[1] 4th ASF outbreak in China - Zhejiang province
Date: Wed 22 Aug 2018
Source: Reuters [edited]
<https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-swinefever/china-reports-fourth-african-swine-fever-outbreak-as-infection-spreads-south-idUSKCN1L80AI?feedType=RSS&feedName=healthNews>


China, home to the world's largest pig herd, reported its 4th outbreak
of the deadly African swine fever [ASF] on Thursday [23 Aug 2018],
with more than 400 pigs infected as the disease entered a 4th
province, fanning worries about its rapid spread.

The infection killed 340 hogs on 3 farms in the coastal city of
Wenzhou in eastern Zhejiang province, the Ministry of Agriculture and
Rural Affairs said in a statement. Zhejiang is the 4th region to
discover the infection and the furthest from the original outbreak in
Shenyang, the capital of northeastern Liaoning province.

Authorities have already culled more than 20 000 animals in an attempt
to halt the spread of the highly contagious disease, which was 1st
reported in China just 3 weeks ago. But the vast distance between new
cases and the original outbreak will escalate worries about how to
control the disease across China's massive hog herd.

To reach Wenzhou from Shenyang, it's a 2150 km (1335 mile) drive south
through the pig-producing provinces of Hebei and Shandong as well as
Jiangsu, another infected region.

The 3rd infection, detected at the weekend, was just 890 km (553
miles) to the north in another coastal city, Lianyungang. The other
was in land in central Henan province. That may stoke concerns that
the disease is being transmitted along busy trade routes that take
pigs from market and farm in the northeast to slaughter and processing
in the south. Some farmers have called a nationwide ban on
transporting live pigs.

The rapid expansion of pig farms in recent years in China's
northeastern corn belt has increased the number of pigs being moved
across country. Local authorities in Wenzhou have banned the movement
of live hogs, related products, and animals that are easily infected
both into and outside the affected area, the ministry said.

[Byline: Josephine Mason and Hallie Gu]

--
Communicated by:
Sabine Zentis
<cvlonghorns@aol.com>

******
[2] ASF in China reviewed
Date: Tue 21 Aug 2018
Source: Science [edited]
<http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2018/08/can-china-world-s-biggest-pork-producer-contain-fatal-pig-virus-scientists-fear-worst>


A nightmare is unfolding for animal-health experts: African swine
fever (ASF), a highly contagious, often fatal disease of domestic pigs
and wild boars, has appeared in China, the world's largest pork
producer. As of today [Tue 21 Aug 2018], ASF has been reported at
sites in 4 provinces in China's northeast, thousands of kilometers
apart. [As of Thu 23 Aug 2018, the number of infected provinces has
become 5; see item 1 above. - Mod.AS]. Containing the disease in a
population of more than 430 million hogs, many raised in smallholder
farmyards with minimal biosecurity, could be a monumental challenge.

"The entry of ASF into China is really a very serious issue," says
Yang Hanchun, a swine viral disease scientist at China Agricultural
University in Beijing. Given the scale of China's pork sector, the
economic impact could be devastating, Yang says, and the outbreak puts
a crucial protein source at risk. From China, the virus could also
spread elsewhere; if it becomes endemic, "it will represent a major
threat for the rest of the world, including the American continent,"
says Francois Roger, an animal epidemiologist at the Agricultural
Research Center for International Development in Montpellier, France.

The virus that causes ASF does not harm humans, but it spreads rapidly
among domestic pigs and wild boars through direct contact or exposure
to farmworkers' contaminated shoes, clothing, and equipment. It can
survive heat and cold and persists for weeks in carcasses, feces, and
fresh and semicured pork products, such as sausages. Ticks can also
spread it. Infection causes a high fever, internal bleeding, and,
often, death. There is no ASF vaccine and no treatment for infected
animals.

Endemic in most African countries, ASF jumped to the nation of Georgia
in 2007 and later spread through Russia; it has also been reported in
Poland and the Czech Republic, and scientists worry about a jump to
major pork producers such as Germany and Denmark.

East Asia's 1st confirmed outbreak occurred on Wed 1 Aug 2018 in
Shenyang, a city in Liaoning province, China's Ministry of Agriculture
says. Investigators have traced the disease back through sales of pigs
and concluded the virus has been circulating in the area since at
least March [2018], says Wantanee Kalpravidh, a veterinarian at the
Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO's) Emergency Centre for
Transboundary Animal Disease in Bangkok.

A genetic analysis suggests the virus is closely related to the strain
circulating in Russia, scientists from the Institute of Military
Veterinary Medicine in Changchun and other Chinese institutions
reported on Mon 13 August 2018 in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
[see http://promedmail.org/post/20180815.5967476]. "The increasing
demand for pork has resulted in a great increase in the volume of live
pigs and pork products imported to China," heightening the risk of
introduction, they wrote. The virus probably arrived in imported pork
products, Kalpravidh says, which then infected pigs that were fed
contaminated table and kitchen scraps.

A 2nd outbreak occurred on Tue 14 Aug 2018 at a slaughterhouse in
Zhengzhou, the capital of Henan province; the afflicted pigs had been
shipped from a market in Jiamusi, a town in Heilongjiang province,
more than 2000 km [about 1243 mi] to the northeast. The virus struck
again on Wed 15 Aug 2018 at a farm in Lianyungang, in Jiangsu
province. The Chinese government has responded by culling sick and
exposed animals -- nearly 9000 were killed in Shenyang alone --
blockading outbreak areas; disinfecting farms, markets, and processing
facilities; controlling the movement of live pigs and pork products;
screening animals; and conducting epidemiological surveys.

But there are serious challenges to containing the virus. Pig
producers in China range from massive, sophisticated operations to
small backyard farms; tailoring a response to suit them all "is the
biggest challenge for China to control ASF," Yang says. The complexity
of the production chain makes tracing paths of infection "an
incredible effort to tackle," says Juan Lubroth, chief veterinarian at
FAO's headquarters in Rome. Kalpravidh says China is trying to earn
the cooperation of producers by immediately compensating them for
culled animals, in hopes of stopping them from slaughtering sick pigs
and selling their meat. But ticks and wild boar could also spread the
disease, although their role is poorly understood.

So far, Lubroth says, China's "very sophisticated and knowledgeable
veterinary workforce" has operated aggressively, and the government
has been transparent about ASF's spread. But containing ASF "won't
happen overnight," he warns.

[Byline: Dennis Normile]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[Zhejiang is bordered by Jiangsu and Shanghai to the north, Anhui to
the northwest, Jiangxi to the west, and Fujian to the south. To the
east is the East China Sea, beyond which lie the Ryukyu Islands of
Japan.

The report in Science magazine includes a schematic map presenting the
distances between the ASF foci in China, as of Tue 21 Aug 2018. The
new outbreak in Wenzhou, in the province Zhejiang, addressed in item 1
above, is situated about 700 km [435 mi] south of the outbreak in the
province Lianyungang. This is another major leap of the virus
southwards. Drawing lines between the locations of the 5 known
outbreaks, in chronological order, is rather simplistic. Since the
virus has been, most probably, circulating on China's ground for at
least 4 months before being eventually detected, the imaging of its
actual chronological route of spread may be distant from reality.

As rightly stated by FAO's chief veterinarian, Juan Lubroth, "China's
very sophisticated and knowledgeable veterinary workforce has operated
aggressively"; unfortunately, this operation could commence only
"after the horse (or rather pig) has bolted." An unimaginable task on
their hands. - Mod.AS

HealthMap/ProMED-mail maps:
China: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/155>
Zhejiang Province, China: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/352>
]

[See Also:
African swine fever - Asia (05): China (JS) domestic swine, spread,
OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20180820.5976534
African swine fever - Asia (04): China (JS) spread
http://promedmail.org/post/20180819.5975008
African swine fever- Asia (03): China (HE, HL), spread
http://promedmail.org/post/20180817.5969883
African swine fever - Asia (02): China (LN) genotyping, epidemiology
http://promedmail.org/post/20180815.5967476
African swine fever - Asia: China (LN) domestic swine, 1st report, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180803.5945484
African swine fever - Europe (32): Latvia (SD) domestic
http://promedmail.org/post/20180803.5945039
African swine fever - Europe (31): Romania (GL) domestic swine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180801.5939942
African swine fever - Europe (30): Moldova (GA) domestic swine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180727.5930507
African swine fever - Europe (29): Romania (IL, SJ) domestic swine
wild boar OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20180726.5928183
African swine fever - Europe (28): Czech Republic, wild boar
http://promedmail.org/post/20180726.5929487
African swine fever - Europe (27): EFSA scientific opinion, comment
http://promedmail.org/post/20180714.5903959
African swine fever - Europe (26): Romania, spread, EFSA scientific
opinion http://promedmail.org/post/20180711.5899939
African swine fever - Europe (25): Romania (BH) domestic swine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180709.5895588
African swine fever - Europe (24): Romania, domestic, spread, concern
http://promedmail.org/post/20180706.5890974
African swine fever - Europe (23): Ukraine, domestic swine, wild boar,
OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20180706.5890094
African swine fever - Europe (22): Romania (CT) domestic swine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180705.5890073
African swine fever - Europe (21): Romania (BR) domestic, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180704.5888639
African swine fever - Europe (20): Romania (TL) domestic swine, spread
http://promedmail.org/post/20180704.5887708
African swine fever - Europe (19): Latvia (SD) domestic
http://promedmail.org/post/20180620.5865002
African swine fever - Europe (18): Romania, domestic swine, wild boar,
OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20180614.5857000
African swine fever - Europe (17): Russia (KN) domestic swine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180614.5853924
African swine fever - Europe (16): Moldova (AN) domestic, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180612.5852549
African swine fever - Europe (15): Ukraine, domestic, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180606.5841307
African swine fever - Europe (14): Hungary (SZ) wild boar, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180522.5810185
African swine fever - Europe (13): Moldova (TA), domestic, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180519.5805964
African swine fever - Europe (12): Moldova (GA), domestic, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180512.5794703
African swine fever - Europe (11): Ukraine, domestic, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180505.5786129
African swine fever - Europe (10): Moldova, domestic, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180428.5771344
African swine fever - Europe (09): Hungary, wild boar, 1st rep, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180424.5765306
African swine fever - Europe (08): Ukraine, wild boar, domestic, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180402.5724317
African swine fever - Europe (07): Poland, wild boar, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180323.5704653
African swine fever - Europe (06): Poland, wild boar, spread
http://promedmail.org/post/20180303.5662244
African swine fever - Europe (05): Moldova, domestic, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180302.5662137
African swine fever - Europe (04): Ukraine, wild boar, domestic, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180227.5652766
African swine fever - Europe (03): Ukraine, wild boar, domestic swine,
OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20180129.5592319
African swine fever - Europe (02): Romania domestic, Latvia wild boar,
OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20180112.5555485
African swine fever - Europe: Czech Republic, wild boar, spread, alert
http://promedmail.org/post/20180108.5545415
2017
----
African swine fever - Europe (20): update, international impact
http://promedmail.org/post/20170821.5263661
African swine fever - Europe (19): Ukraine (DP) domestic swine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20170819.5261628
African swine fever - Europe (18): Czech Republic (ZK) wild boar,
spread, control http://promedmail.org/post/20170819.5260788
African swine fever - Europe (17): Romania (SM) domestic, 1st rep, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20170801.5218650
African swine fever - Europe (16): Czech Republic (ZK) wild boar,
Hungary, alert http://promedmail.org/post/20170726.5207022
2016
----
African swine fever - Europe (11): Russia, control, economic impact
http://promedmail.org/post/20160830.4451464
2014
----
African swine fever - Europe (05): Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, wild
boar control http://promedmail.org/post/20140321.2345369
African swine fever - Europe (02): (EU) prevention, control,
epidemiology http://promedmail.org/post/20140215.2280473
African swine fever - Europe: Lithuania, Russia, wild boar control,
OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20140211.2271563
African swine fever - Lithuania (04): (AS, VI) wild boar, int'l
implications, control http://promedmail.org/post/20140127.2236069
2012
----
African swine fever - Ukraine (05): international trade
http://promedmail.org/post/20120827.1265882
African swine fever - Ukraine (04): Europe, threat, FAO
http://promedmail.org/post/20120822.1257502
and other items in the archives]
.................................................arn/tw/lxl
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