Saturday, August 18, 2018

PRO/AH/EDR> Canine influenza - USA (05): (CT) possible more virulent strain H3N2

CANINE INFLUENZA - USA (05): (CONNECTICUT) POSSIBLE MORE VIRULENT
STRAIN H3N2
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Date: Fri 17 Aug 2018
Source: Wilton Bulletin [edited]
<https://www.wiltonbulletin.com/128110/three-confirmed-cases-of-dog-flu-in-wilto/>


Wilton joins Stamford and Greenwich on the list of Fairfield County
municipalities with confirmed cases of H3N2, a newer virulent strain
of canine influenza, or "dog flu," that appeared in New York City
earlier this year [2018] before making its way into Connecticut.

In a Wed 8 Aug 2018 email, Dr. Jennifer Rosen told The Bulletin that
South Wilton Veterinary Group on Danbury Road has had "3 confirmed
cases" of H3N2. All 3 cases were in July [2018], the 1st of which was
on Wed 11 July 2018, according to the veterinary group's other medical
director, Dr. Clare Fahy.

In the USA, there are 2 strains causing dog flu: H3N8 and H3N2.
According to the American Veterinary Medical Association, H3N8 was 1st
reported in the USA in 2004, and H3N2 1st appeared in the USA in 2015.
The H3N2 virus appeared in Brooklyn, NY, back in April [2018] and
spread across New York City's boroughs before making its way to
Connecticut.

Rosen said "the best way to prevent dogs from becoming severely ill"
is to vaccinate them against both strains. Dog owners should also
"wash their hands and any shared toys after playing or contact with
other dogs," she added, and "avoid bringing their dogs to areas where
other dogs congregate," such as grooming facilities, dog parks, and
doggy day cares.

Dr. Ralph Hunt of the Wilton Hospital for Animals on Danbury Road
reported on Thu 9 Aug 2018 that his practice hasn't had any cases of
H3N2 but said "there's more precaution with this particular strain."
The Office of the State Veterinarian is "trying to be proactive" when
it comes to the virus, he said, and is requiring veterinarians to
report confirmed cases of canine influenza in the state. The Bulletin
reached out to the state veterinarian but did not hear back in time
for publication.

There have been no confirmed cases of H3N2 at the Cannondale Animal
Clinic on Danbury Road, but the clinic did have 3 dogs come in with
coughs "shortly after the outbreak" in Stamford, according to Dr.
Paula Belknap.

Two of the dogs were tested and came back negative for H3N2 but
positive for _Bordetella_ and mycoplasma, said Belknap, "which
contributed to their flu-like signs."

"Both dogs had been previously vaccinated for H3N2 virus," she said,
"and I believe it is why they tested negative for H3N2." Belknap said
the owner of the 3rd dog declined testing.

According to the Cornell University School of Veterinary Medicine,
"virtually all dogs are susceptible" to dog flu, and the onset of
signs come 2-3 days after infection. Signs include high fever,
coughing, loss of appetite, lethargy, runny nose, and eye discharge.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), not
all dogs show signs of illness, and "the severity of illness
associated with canine flu in dogs can range from no signs to severe
illness."

Dogs with flu signs should be taken to the vet promptly for assessment
and treatment. If diagnosed with canine flu, dogs should be kept away
from other dogs for at least 3 weeks to prevent spreading the
disease.

There are no drugs to treat canine influenza, which means the illness
must run its course once a dog is infected. [Supportive treatment may
be needed with severely ill animals. - Mod.TG]

While most dogs recover within 2-3 weeks, according to the CDC, "some
may develop secondary bacterial infections, which may lead to more
severe illness and pneumonia."

[Byline: Kendra Baker]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
<promed@promedmail.org>

[Canine influenza (CI) or dog flu is a highly contagious respiratory
infection of dogs that is caused by an influenza A virus. In the USA,
CI has been caused by 2 influenza strains. The 1st strain reported in
the USA, beginning in 2004, was an H3N8 influenza A virus. This strain
is closely related to the virus that causes equine influenza, and it
is thought that the equine influenza virus mutated to produce the
canine strain.

"In 2015, an outbreak that started in Chicago was caused by a separate
CI virus, H3N2. The strain causing the 2015 outbreak was almost
genetically identical to an H3N2 strain previously reported only in
Asia, specifically Korea, China, and Thailand. In Asia, this H3N2
strain is believed to have resulted from the direct transfer of an
avian influenza virus -- possibly from among viruses circulating in
live bird markets -- to dogs. Since March 2015, thousands of dogs have
been confirmed positive for H3N2 CI across the USA" (see
<https://www.avma.org/KB/Resources/FAQs/Pages/Control-of-Canine-Influenza-in-Dogs.aspx>).

Healthy dogs can be vaccinated and should be if you must board your
animal. There is a vaccine for both strains of the flu mentioned
above. If the virus is circulating in your area, avoiding canine
social activities (dog parks, play dates, interactions in the park,
etc.) may help protect your dog.

Canine influenza viruses (H3N2 and H3N8) are not known to infect
humans (see <https://www.cdc.gov/flu/canineflu/keyfacts.htm>).

This article briefly discussed 3 cases but does not provide any
laboratory evidence or substantial data to raise the suspicion of a
more virulent strain. It does indicate that 2 dogs had been vaccinated
and tested negative, which may mean, as mentioned in the article, that
there was infection but not necessarily co-infection with another
organism. It may also mean there is a new strain for which there is no
identification test currently available. - Mod.TG

HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/4609>]

[See Also:
Canine influenza - USA (04): (MI) H3N2
http://promedmail.org/post/20180817.5970938
Canine influenza - USA (03): (NV) H3N2
http://promedmail.org/post/20180221.5642787
Canine, influenza - USA (02): (CA) H3N2
http://promedmail.org/post/20180121.5574759
Canine influenza - USA: (WA) H3N2
http://promedmail.org/post/20180114.5558136
Canine influenza - Canada (02): H3N2, more canine cases
http://promedmail.org/post/20180115.5559485
Canine influenza - Canada: ex Asia, H3N2, 1st rep
http://promedmail.org/post/20180109.5547445
2015
----
Undiagnosed illness, canine - Canada (02): (ON) canine influenza
susp., comment http://promedmail.org/post/20151029.3752913
Undiagnosed illness, canine - Canada (ON): canine influenza susp.
http://promedmail.org/post/20151028.3750004
Influenza, canine - USA (05): H3N2, possible entry method
http://promedmail.org/post/20150420.3308583
2014
----
Avian influenza (41): South Korea, HPAI H5N8, poultry, canine susp,
genotyping http://promedmail.org/post/20140316.2336816
2013
----
Influenza, canine - China: H3N2 avian origin, RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20131205.2095131
2010
----
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009, animal (01): China, porcine, canine
http://promedmail.org/post/20100101.0014
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009, animal (01): China, swine, canine
http://promedmail.org/post/20100101.0014
2009
----
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009, animal (40): USA (NY) canine
http://promedmail.org/post/20091222.4305
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009, animal (30): China, canine
http://promedmail.org/post/20091128.4079]
.................................................sb/tg/tw
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