Monday, August 20, 2018

PRO/AH/EDR> Eastern equine encephalitis - Canada: (ON)

EASTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS - CANADA: (ONTARIO)
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[1]
Date: Thu 16 Aug 2018 8:52 AM EDT
Source: Simcoe Reformer [edited]
<https://www.simcoereformer.ca/news/local-news/horses-test-positive-for-virus>


Two Haldimand [county] horses have tested positive for a serious
equine virus. The horses, which are housed in the Dunnville area,
tested positive earlier this month [August 2018] for eastern equine
encephalitis [EEE] virus after showing neurological symptoms, the
Haldimand-Norfolk health unit announced [Wed 15 Aug 2018].

The health unit has not had a report of a horse positive for the virus
since 2009. "This serves notice that the virus continues to circulate
in the area," the health unit said.

The virus, also known as "triple E" or "sleeping sickness," affects
mostly horses and birds and is transmitted through the bite of an
infected mosquito.

It also can be transmitted to humans through mosquitoes, said the
health unit, noting that most people infected will not develop
symptoms.

However, severe cases can cause headaches, high fevers, chills, and
vomiting. The illness can then progress into disorientation, seizures,
and even coma.

The health unit said it has received no reports of human cases in
Haldimand or Norfolk. And its mosquito surveillance program has had
none of the insects test positive for the virus to date.

"With recent surveillance finding mosquitoes positive for West Nile
virus and now 2 horses with eastern equine encephalitis, it's clear we
shouldn't become complacent when it comes to protecting ourselves from
mosquito bites," Kris Lutzi, senior public health inspector, said in a
news release.

The health unit offered a few tips to protect residents from mosquito
bites. They include: apply insect repellent containing DEET or
picaridin, wear light-coloured clothing, long sleeves and pants, if
possible, and remove standing water from your property.

Removing all standing water sites from your property is also a good
idea for horse owners.

The health unit also suggests making sure barns have tight-fitting
screens over windows and doors and using yellow incandescent or
fluorescent lights because they considered less attractive to
mosquitoes.

More information on eastern equine encephalitis virus can be found
online at <http://hnhu.org> [Haldimand-Norfolk Health Unit ] or by
calling 519-426-6170 or 905-318-6623.

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******
[2]
Date: Tue 14 Aug 2018 2:14 pm ET
Source: Standardbred Canada [edited]
<http://www.standardbredcanada.ca/notices/8-14-18/eastern-equine-encephalitis-warning.html>


On [8 and 9 Aug 2018], the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and
Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) was notified of 2 confirmed cases of eastern
equine encephalitis (EEE) in horses in Haldimand County.

Both horses, from separate farms, were unvaccinated for EEE and had no
history of travel. They were euthanized following the sudden onset and
progression of neurological signs. Laboratory diagnostic testing
confirmed infection with EEE virus. Private veterinarians have
confirmed 3 more horses have demonstrated acute onset of neurological
disease within a 5 kilometre [3 mi] radius of these 2 horses and 2
have been euthanized.

Veterinarians in Ontario should consider EEE as a differential
diagnosis in horses exhibiting neurological signs and can identify
positive cases through appropriate testing. IgM antibodies to the EEE
virus (EEEv) can be detected in serum from horses with neurological
signs. Clinical signs of EEE including circling, head-pressing,
ataxia, and depression, can mimic a variety of encephalitides
including rabies, West Nile virus (WNV), botulism, hepatic
encephalopathy, equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, and equine herpes
myeloencephalopathy. Most equine cases of EEE in Ontario occur between
August and October and end with the onset of frost.

Effective equine vaccines for EEE are available and veterinarians
should encourage clients to keep their horse's vaccinations current.
Once clinical infection develops, treatment options are limited to
supportive care. The mortality rate in unvaccinated horses is high.

EEEv affects mainly equine species in eastern North America, but can
occasionally cause severe disease in humans, including permanent brain
damage or death. EEEv has also caused fatal infections in pheasants,
quail, captive whooping cranes, emus, and dogs.

EEEv has been present in the Ontario horse population since 1938.
Equine neurological cases are posted on the OMAFRA website
(<http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/livestock/horses/westnile.htm>).

Ontario's local public health units are conducting mosquito
surveillance for both WNV and EEEv. Birds are the natural hosts for
both viruses, which are transmitted to horses and humans by mosquitoes
which have bitten an infected bird. As of [8 Aug 2018] no mosquito
pools have tested positive for EEEv.

Questions with respect to equine health issues should be directed to:
Dr Alison Moore
Lead Veterinarian - Animal Health and Welfare
Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food
Tel: (519) 826 - 4514
E-mail: alison.moore@ontario.ca
Agricultural Information Contact Centre:
1-877-424-1300
<ag.info.omafra@ontario.ca>
<http://www.ontario.ca/omafra>

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[These 2 articles from Canada may refer to the same equine cases but
it is not clear these are the same 2 horses just because the area is
the same. The reporting entities are different and there are helpful
information in each of the articles.

The overall theme on this and today's report from the USA (archive no.
http://promedmail.org/post/20180820.5975634) is that owners are
failing to vaccinate their animals. There is an effective vaccine.
Mosquitoes carry the virus and mosquito control is also important in
controlling this disease. - Mod.TG

HealthMap/ProMED maps of Ontario province, Canada:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/54840>]

[See Also:
2015
----
Eastern equine encephalitis - Canada (03): (ON) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20151111.3782475
2014
----
Eastern equine encephalitis - Canada (02): (ON) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20140828.2728616
Eastern equine encephalitis - Canada: (ON) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20140824.2717427]
.................................................sb/tg/ml/mj/lxl
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