Saturday, August 25, 2018

PRO/AH/EDR> Ebola update (77): Congo DR (NK) case update, risk, control, research

EBOLA UPDATE (77): DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO (NORTH KIVU) CASE
UPDATE, RISK, CONTROL, RESEARCH
*************************************************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>

In this update:
[1] Case update
- Epidemiological situation report, 23 Aug 2018, DRC Ministry of
Health
- Doctor stricken with Ebola rebel stronghold
- Doctor in eastern Congo contracts Ebola in "dreaded" scenario: WHO
- Ebola: medics brace for new cases as DRC outbreak spreads
- Doctor infected with Ebola in DRC conflict zone
- WHO video: updates on the Rohingya situation in Bangladesh and Ebola
in DRC with Dr. P. Salama
[2] Risk
- UNHCR: Violence puts millions at risk in eastern DRC
[3] Control of viral outbreaks
[4] Research on immune system response to Ebola

******
[1] Case update
- Fri 24 Aug 2018. Epidemiological situation report, 23 Aug 2018, DRC
Ministry of Health
[in French, machine trans., edited]
<https://us13.campaign-archive.com/?u=89e5755d2cca4840b1af93176&id=efb2bdcb2a>

The epidemiological situation of the Ebola virus disease dated 23 Aug
2018:
- A total of 105 cases of haemorrhagic fever were reported in the
region, 77 confirmed and 28 probable.
- Of the 77 confirmed cases, 11 are cured, 27 are hospitalized and 39
have died.
- Also, 10 suspected cases are under investigation.
- One new case has been confirmed in Beni.
- An additional 2 people have recovered in Mabalako.
- There are 3 new confirmed cases, including 2 in Mabalako and one in
Beni.
- One community death (probable case) has been reported in Beni.

News of the response
Medical care
------------------------------
- During his visit to the Mangina Ebola Treatment Center (ETC) on Thu
23 Aug 2018, the Minister of Health, Dr. Oly Ilunga Kalenga, witnessed
the unloading of 2 patients cured of Ebola. These 2 people are among
the first 10 patients to receive the therapeutic molecule MAb114,
developed by Professor Jean-Jacques Muyembe and the National
Institutes of Health (NIH) from the serum of a survivor of the Ebola
epidemic from 1995 to Kikwit. The short-, medium- and long-term
observations of patients and survivors will make it possible to
evaluate the extent to which the molecule has contributed to their
recovery.

Vaccination
------------------------------
- Since vaccination began on 8 Aug 2018, 2957 people have been
vaccinated, including 1422 in Mabalako, 701 in Beni, 746 in Mandima
and 88 in Oicha.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail Rapporteur Mary Marshall

- Fri 24 Aug 2018. Doctor stricken with Ebola rebel stronghold
[Al Jazeera, edited]
<https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/08/drc-doctor-stricken-ebola-rebel-stronghold-180824095226217.html>

A doctor in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has been
hospitalised with the deadly Ebola virus after coming into contact
with nearly 100 people. The World Health Organization (WHO) said on
Fri [24 Aug 2018] that investigating the infection and its possible
spread to 97 people in contact with the physician would be difficult
because the area was entirely surrounded by rebels.

Since the outbreak erupted in DRC on 1 Aug 2018, 103 confirmed and
probable cases of Ebola have been identified in North Kivu and Ituri
provinces, including 63 deaths, the health ministry said. "It is the
first time we have a confirmed case and contacts in an area of high
insecurity," said Dr. Peter Salama, WHO's deputy director-general for
emergency preparedness and response.

"It is really the problem we were anticipating and at same time
dreading," he told a news briefing. Salama also said the Ebola
infection occurred in the eastern town of Oicha, 50 km (31 miles) from
DRC's border with Uganda.

The area was surrounded by fighters from the Allied Democratic Forces
(ADF), who he said posed "extremely serious security concerns." WHO
and health experts reached Oicha with an armed escort by MONUSCO
troops this week, Salama said. 

The DRC's military launched an offensive against the armed group in
January [2018] after an attack on Tanzanian UN peacekeepers that
killed 15 soldiers. "We are at quite a pivotal moment in this outbreak
in terms of the evolution of the outbreak epidemiologically and in
terms of the response," said Salama.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail Rapporteur Mary Marshall

- Fri 24 Aug 2018. Doctor in eastern Congo contracts Ebola in
"dreaded" scenario: WHO
[Reuters, edited]
<https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-ebola-congo-who/doctor-in-eastern-congo-contracts-ebola-in-dreaded-scenario-who-idUSKCN1L90VC>
[Byline: Stephanie Nebehay]

A doctor has become the first probable Ebola case in one of the
eastern DRC's "high insecurity zones," which are dogged by militia
violence and hard to access, a scenario "we have all been dreading,"
the WHO said on Fri [24 Aug 2018].

The doctor living in Oicha town in North Kivu has been re-hospitalised
with Ebola symptoms after his wife was confirmed as having the disease
when she traveled to the nearby city of Beni, Dr. Peter Salama, the
WHO's head of emergency operations, said.

Oicha is almost entirely surrounded by ADF Ugandan Islamist militia,
and there are "extremely serious security concerns," he said. Aid
workers, priests and government officials are held hostage in the
area, he said. The doctor's initial test for Ebola -- which causes
vomiting, fever and diarrhoea -- had been negative, but new results
are pending, Salama told Reuters.

Thus far, 97 of the doctor's contacts who may have been exposed to the
virus have been identified, and vaccination has begun in the town,
Salama added. "So, for the first time really we have a confirmed case
and contacts in an area of very high insecurity. It really was the
problem we were anticipating and the problem at same time that we were
dreading," Salama told a news briefing.

WHO and health experts reached Oicha with armed escort by MONUSCO
troops this week, he said, adding: "We know from that incident now in
Oicha we are going to have to operate in some very complex
environments due to security and access concerns."

In a further worrying development, angry youth burned down a health
centre in another village, where vaccinations were underway, after
learning of a death from Ebola, Salama said.

More than 2900 people have been vaccinated against Ebola since the
outbreak began, he said. "We are at quite a pivotal moment in this
outbreak in terms of the evolution of the outbreak epidemiologically
and in terms of the response," he said.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail Rapporteur Mary Marshall

- Fri 24 Aug 2018. Ebola: medics brace for new cases as DRC outbreak
spreads
[The Guardian, excerpted, edited]
<https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/aug/24/ebola-drc-outbreak-spreads>
[Byline: Jason Burke]

Several cases of Ebola have already been identified in the city of
Beni, raising fears of further infection in a crowded urban centre.
Just as worrying, health workers said, was a new case in the town of
Oicha, which is almost entirely surrounded by an Islamist militia
based in Uganda that has been responsible for a series of bloody raids
across the region. North Kivu is one of the most violent parts of
Congo and is a base for dozens of armed groups that contest government
authority and exploit mineral resources in the region.

The WHO said a doctor in Oicha had been hospitalised with Ebola, and
97 of his contacts had been identified. "It is the first time we have
a confirmed case and contacts in an area of high insecurity. It is
really the problem we were anticipating and at the same time
dreading," Salama said.

Karin Huster, coordinator for Médecins Sans Frontières in Mangina,
the epicentre of the outbreak, said new patients were arriving at the
emergency treatment units every day. "Obviously we are concerned. We
are worried that we are not seeing the suspect cases coming into our
centres that we should be seeing. It is not a situation where we are
confident that the outbreak is under control," Huster said. "It is all
about winning the trust of the community. It's super important to come
early when they are sick and people often come too late." [more...]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail Rapporteur Mary Marshall

- Fri 24 Aug 2018. Doctor infected with Ebola in DRC conflict zone
[CIDRAP (Center for Infectious Disease Response and Policy),
excerpted, edited]
<http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2018/08/doctor-infected-ebola-drc-conflict-zone>

Early today Peter Salama, MD, the WHO's deputy director-general for
emergency preparedness and response, said in a telebriefing that the
outbreak, which began on 1 Aug [2018] in North Kivu province, is in
one of the most dangerous places in the DRC. He explained that North
Kivu is a United Nations (UN) security area "stage 4"; stage 5
requires UN evacuation.

"More than 80% of cases are in and around Mangina. If we look within
[a] 20 to 30 kilometer [12.5 to 18.5 miles] radius we see the
overwhelming majority of cases occurring there," Salama said. "We know
that radius contains an accessible population."

Salama said the case involving the physician was confirmed earlier
this week in Oicha, a town 30 kilometers [18.5 miles] east of Beni,
adding that there are as many as 2 more suspected cases in that town.
The index case was likely a physician who traveled to Oicha from Beni
and may have infected his wife, Salama said.

The road to Oicha is in a red zone. According to Reuters, Oicha is
almost entirely surrounded by ADF Ugandan Islamist militia.

Salama also provided more details on the use of therapeutics in this
outbreak. A total of 13 patients have been given the experimental
monoclonal antibody treatment MAb114, with positive results, and one
patient has been started on remdesivir. More patients are expected to
be given remdesivir, an experimental antiviral drug, in the next 2
days.

Finally, Salama recounted the details of angry youths who burned down
a health center in the village of Manbangu after they learned of a
local death from Ebola. He said community outreach has been
strengthened in that village and vaccinations have resumed.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail Rapporteur Mary Marshall

- Fri 24 Aug 2018. WHO video: updates on the Rohingya situation in
Bangladesh and Ebola in DRC with Dr. P. Salama
<http://bit.ly/2Nfaau3>

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail Rapporteur Mary Marshall

[Dr. Peter Salama of WHO described disturbing new developments in the
unfolding North Kivu Ebola outbreak, as reported in the above
overlapping articles. Unfortunately, a transcript of his remarks does
not seem to be publically available, but key junctures may be viewed
at the following time points in the video available at the URL above
(total duration 31:33):
8:03 - DRC Ebola update begins
9:19 - 1st suspect case in Oicha, an area of high insecurity
10:53 - Violent reaction in the home village of an Ebola patient who
died in the Mangina ETC on 22 Aug [2018]
12:12 - Role of infected healthcare workers in amplifying the
outbreak
14:20 - Ring vaccination
15:14 - New experimental therapeutics being deployed
Troubling as some of these developments are, the transparency and
forthright manner projected by Dr. Salama is central to building trust
and overcoming these setbacks - Mod.LXL

The 2 antiviral compounds mentioned in the posts above are MAb114 and
remdesivir. MAb114 is a single monoclonal antibody isolated from a
human Ebola virus disease survivor. The antibody is a human IgG1 MAb
targeted to the Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) glycoprotein (GP), blocking
its interaction with a receptor on human cells. This is the 1st
antibody to demonstrate the ability to neutralize the virus by this
interaction between the virus and its cellular receptor. The outbreak
in the DRC provides a testing ground for efficacy of this antibody.
Remdesivir, another antiviral drug, is a novel nucleotide analog
prodrug, developed by Gilead Sciences as a treatment for filovirus
infections such as Ebola virus disease and Marburg virus, although it
has subsequently also been found to show reasonable antiviral activity
against more distantly related viruses. - Mod.LK

HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
DR Congo: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/194>]

******
[2] Risk
- Fri 24 Aug 2018. Spiralling violence puts millions at risk in
Ebola-hit eastern DRC
[UNHCR press briefing, excerpted, edited]
<http://www.unhcr.org/news/briefing/2018/8/5b7fc5ef4/spiralling-violence-puts-millions-risk-ebola-hit-eastern-drc.html>

UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is alarmed by the latest escalation of
violence in already volatile and Ebola-hit North Kivu province in east
of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Forced displacement in
this part of the country remains massive. It is estimated that more
than one million people are displaced in North Kivu. This is the
highest concentration of internally displaced people (IDPs) in the
DRC. An estimated half a million people have been forced from their
homes this year alone.

UNHCR is particularly worried about the deteriorating situation in the
Ebola-hit northern territory of Beni. The area is home to some 1.3
million people. Spiralling conflict has left the population living
there virtually in a state of siege since October 2017. Reports of
increased human rights violations and restrictions of humanitarian
access are frequent. Estimates are that more than 100 armed groups are
active in the province, continually terrorizing the population.
Despite a large-scale military offensive of the Congolese Army against
one of the main rebel groups, the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) since
January [2018], there has been no let-up in the violence.

Despite security challenges, a UNHCR team accessed the area north of
Beni earlier this month and conducted humanitarian assessments in
Oicha and Eringeti districts. Residents told our staff about brutal
attacks against the civilians carried out with machetes. Stories of
massacres, extortion, forced displacement and other human rights
violations are frequent. Sexual and gender-based violence is rampant
across the Beni territory. Many children are being recruited as child
soldiers. The violence is particularly rampant in the so-called
"triangle of death," between the towns of Eringeti, Mbau and Kamango,
on the Uganda-DRC border, as well as in the towns of Beni, Oicha and
Mavivi.

UNHCR is scaling up its capacity in North Kivu to respond to the
growing humanitarian needs. They are arranging additional emergency
shelters and other humanitarian assistance to meet the needs of the
displaced in Beni. While UNHCR's humanitarian response is continuing
despite the outbreak of Ebola, the prevailing security situation and
drastic funding shortfall severely hamper their efforts. UNHCR's DRC
2018 appeal totalling USD 201 million is only 17% funded.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail Rapporteur Mary Marshall

[This UNHCR briefing provides ample context and evidence for the
ongoing humanitarian crisis in North Kivu caused by relentless armed
conflict, and specifically mentions not only Beni but also Oicha,
where a probable case of Ebola has now been reported for the 1st time
(part 1, above). - Mod.LXL]

******
[3] Control of viral outbreaks
- Fri 24 Aug 2018. A better method for stopping Ebola and yellow
fever
Science Friday [edited]
<http://bit.ly/2NdAm8k>

From 1976 to 2017, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
experienced 8 outbreaks of the deadly Ebola virus. Then, for 10 weeks
earlier this year [2018], the virus reemerged in the country, killing
33 people. Ministry of Health officials finally declared the crisis
over on 24 Jul 2018.

But just one week later, on 1 Aug [2018], the DRC reported a new
outbreak of the Ebola virus in North Kivu province. Dr. Anthony Fauci,
director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
at the National Institutes of Health, joins Ira [Ira Flatow, host of
Science Friday] for an update on the latest outbreak of the Ebola
virus in the DRC.

Plus, public health officials may not be able to control when and
where a viral outbreak will occur. But, with the right strategy, they
can keep it from becoming an epidemic. One of these strategies was
used with yellow fever, a virus that emerged in Brazil last year
[2017] and threatened major population centers like Sao Paulo and Rio
de Janeiro.

In a recent article published in the journal Science, Dr. Nuno Faria
of the University of Oxford describes how his team used real-time
genome sequencing of the yellow fever virus to track where it came
from and which groups might be at risk. He joins Ira to discuss the
work.

Segment guests
Anthony Fauci is director of the National Institute of Allergy and
Infectious Diseases at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda,
MD, USA.
Nuno Faria is Royal Society Research Fellow at the University of
Oxford in Oxford, UK.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail Rapporteur Mary Marshall
from
Greg Folkers
NIAID, NIH
<gfolkers@niaid.nih.gov>

******
[4] Research

- Thu 23 Aug 2018. How the human immune system protects against Ebola
[EurekAlert!, AAAS; edited]
<https://eurekalert.org/multimedia/pub/178314.php>

Image: Colorized scanning electron micrograph of filamentous Ebola
virus particles (blue) budding from a chronically infected VERO E6
cell (yellow-green). Image captured and color-enhanced at the NIAID
Integrated Research Facility in Ft. Detrick, MD, USA. [Credit: NIAID,
flickr]

Two types of human antibodies that target different parts of the Ebola
virus synergize their antiviral effects by inhibiting different steps
of infection, according to a study published 23 Aug [2018] in the
open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Philipp Ilinykh and colleagues
from the University of Texas Medical Branch, Vanderbilt University,
and Ragon Institute. These new insights into how the human immune
system protects against Ebola infections could lead to the development
of effective antibody-based therapies.

The unprecedented Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa from 2013 to
2016 resulted in more than 11 000 human fatalities, demonstrating the
urgent need for treatments against this virus and related highly
pathogenic filoviruses. Despite intense international collaborative
efforts, there is still no licensed therapeutic available against
filovirus disease. Further progress in the development of effective
antibody-based therapies for filovirus infections requires a better
understanding of the mechanism underlying their protective effect.
Although the human immune system can produce strong antibody responses
against filoviruses, the effects on multiple steps of filovirus
infection have not been clear.

To address this gap in knowledge, Ilinykh and colleagues evaluated the
mechanisms underlying the antiviral effects of a diverse panel of
monoclonal antibodies obtained from several survivors of natural Ebola
virus infections. Monoclonal antibodies that targeted either the
glycan cap or stem region of the viral glycoprotein interfered with
and targeted different steps of filovirus infection. For example,
glycan cap-specific antibodies inhibited viral attachment to the cell
surface, cell-to-cell transmission and virion budding. By contrast,
stem-specific antibodies triggered the activation of natural killer
cells and the destruction of infected cells by monocytes and
neutrophils.

Taken together, the findings suggest that different types of
antibodies exert cooperative effects by blocking distinct steps of
filovirus infection. According to the authors, antibody cocktails that
combine complementary antiviral effects should be tested in future
studies.

Bukreyev adds, "The current approach for treatment of filovirus
infections with antibody cocktails tested in animal models utilizes
the principle of targeting of non-overlapping epitopes. Our study
suggests that possible synergistic effects of antibodies which block
various steps of viral replication should be also considered."

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail Rapporteur Mary Marshall
from
Greg Folkers
NIAID, NIH
<gfolkers@niaid.nih.gov>

[See Also:
Ebola update (76): Congo DR (NK) case update, response
http://promedmail.org/post/20180824.5984263
Ebola update (75): Congo DR (NK) cases, WHO, response, perspectives
http://promedmail.org/post/20180823.5981519
Ebola update (74): Congo DR (NK) cases, response, WHO, reflections
http://promedmail.org/post/20180822.5979052
Ebola update (73): Congo DR (NK) cases, anti-viral, research
http://promedmail.org/post/20180821.5977639
Ebola update (72): Congo DR (NK) cases, response, research
http://promedmail.org/post/20180820.5975692
Ebola update (71): Congo DR (NK) cases, response, bats
http://promedmail.org/post/20180818.5974137
Ebola update (70): Congo DR (NK) cases, recommendations, war, comment
http://promedmail.org/post/20180817.5971731
Ebola update (69): Congo DR (NK, IT) cases, Uganda NOT, WHO response
http://promedmail.org/post/20180816.5968689
Ebola update (68): Congo DR (NK) WHO, Uganda cases, concerns,
challenges http://promedmail.org/post/20180815.5966397
Ebola update (67): Congo DR (NK) cases, response, issues, research
http://promedmail.org/post/20180814.5964660
Ebola update (66): Congo DR (NK) cases, response
http://promedmail.org/post/20180813.5962221
Ebola update (65): Congo DR (NK) cases, vaccines
http://promedmail.org/post/20180812.5960584
Ebola update (64): Congo DR (NK) cases, security, genome
http://promedmail.org/post/20180810.5959744
Ebola update (63): Congo DR (NK) cases, vaccine, security, burial,
genome http://promedmail.org/post/20180809.5957277
Ebola update (62): Congo DR (NK) WHO, response, genetics
http://promedmail.org/post/20180808.5953189
Ebola update (61): Congo DR (NK) WHO, cases, response
http://promedmail.org/post/20180806.5950109
Ebola update (60): DR Congo (NK) case update, response, risk
http://promedmail.org/post/20180805.5948198
Ebola update (59): Congo DR (NK) case update, risk, response,
treatment http://promedmail.org/post/20180804.5946851
Ebola update (58): Congo DR (NK) outbreak, Ebola Zaire confirmed
http://promedmail.org/post/20180802.5944088
Ebola update (57): Congo DR (NK):
http://promedmail.org/post/20180801.5941427
Ebola update (56): northeast Congo DR, Ebola-like cases, US negative,
RFI http://promedmail.org/post/20180730.5936610
Ebola update (55): Sierra Leone Ebola virus variant, Congo DR cases,
WHO http://promedmail.org/post/20180727.5931686
Ebola update (54): Congo DR, cases, therapeutics
http://promedmail.org/post/20180725.5926964
Ebola update (53): Congo DR, cases, surveillance, action
http://promedmail.org/post/20180720.5916987
Ebola update (52): Congo DR, cases, health workers, W Africa survivor
problems http://promedmail.org/post/20180713.5902694
Ebola update (51): Congo DR, cases, response
http://promedmail.org/post/20180709.5895475
Ebola update (50): Congo DR, Japanese response, CIDRAP, WHO, survey
http://promedmail.org/post/20180706.5891820
Ebola update (49): Congo DR, suspect deaths comment
http://promedmail.org/post/20180704.5888151
Ebola update (48): Congo DR, MSF, susp. deaths, RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20180703.5886426
Ebola update (47): DR Congo, epidemiology, response, Libya RFI
http://promedmail.org/post/20180701.5884463
Ebola update (46): Congo DR, cases
http://promedmail.org/post/20180629.5882196
Ebola update (45): Congo DR, cases, outbreak, MSF
http://promedmail.org/post/20180628.5880392
Ebola update (44): Congo DR, cases, research, course
http://promedmail.org/post/20180626.5877543
Ebola update (43): Congo DR, cases, vaccine, persistence, lessons
http://promedmail.org/post/20180625.5873949
Ebola update (42): Congo DR, cases, vaccine
http://promedmail.org/post/20180625.5872757
Ebola update (41): Congo DR, cases, WHO, contacts
http://promedmail.org/post/20180623.5871358
Ebola update (40): Congo DR, cases, WHO, vaccine, treatment,
preparedness http://promedmail.org/post/20180622.5869267
Ebola update (39): Congo DR, cases, WHO, response, facilities,
treatment, research http://promedmail.org/post/20180620.5865023
Ebola update (38): DR Congo, cases, WHO, Oxfam
http://promedmail.org/post/20180618.5861962
Ebola update (37): Congo DR, cases, response
http://promedmail.org/post/20180617.5859839
Ebola update (36): Congo DR, cases, threat, assistance
http://promedmail.org/post/20180615.5858111
Ebola update (35): Congo DR, cases, response, WHO
http://promedmail.org/post/20180614.5855415
Ebola update (34): Congo DR, cases, response, WHO
http://promedmail.org/post/20180613.5853602
Ebola update (33): Congo DR, cases, response, WHO, diagnosis
http://promedmail.org/post/20180612.5850968
Ebola update (32): Congo DR, cases, preparation, research
http://promedmail.org/post/20180611.5849759
Ebola update (31): Congo DR, cases, response, WHO
http://promedmail.org/post/20180610.5848785
Ebola update (30): Congo DR, cases, WHO, action
http://promedmail.org/post/20180609.5847441
Ebola update (29): Congo DR, cases, MSF, antivirals
http://promedmail.org/post/20180608.5845483
Ebola update (28): Congo DR, cases, WHO, response, treatment, funding
http://promedmail.org/post/20180607.5843872
Ebola update (27): Congo DR, cases, travel screening, children
http://promedmail.org/post/20180606.5841051
Ebola update (26): Congo DR, border controls, bat reservoir
http://promedmail.org/post/20180604.5838529
Ebola update (25): Congo DR, case update, intl. travel screening
http://promedmail.org/post/20180603.5836552
Ebola update (24): Congo DR, case update, African aid response
http://promedmail.org/post/20180602.5835414
Ebola update (23): Congo DR, cases, vacc. campaign targets, vaccine
development http://promedmail.org/post/20180601.5834040
Ebola update (22): Congo DR, cases, cures, domestic and international
travel http://promedmail.org/post/20180531.5831747
Ebola update (21): Congo DR, update, WHO, vaccination, therapeutics
http://promedmail.org/post/20180530.5829192
Ebola update (20): Congo DR, case update, lessons, logistics,
financing, flights http://promedmail.org/post/20180529.5824985
Ebola update (19): Congo DR, case update
http://promedmail.org/post/20180528.5822466
Ebola update (18): cases, Uganda NOT, Congo DR vaccination campaign
http://promedmail.org/post/20180527.5821927
Ebola update (17): case update, public fears, government responses
http://promedmail.org/post/20180526.5820606
Ebola update (16): cases, Congo DR cultural factors, vaccine impl.,
case terminology http://promedmail.org/post/20180525.5817907
Ebola update (15): case update, quarantine breaches, border controls,
vaccine http://promedmail.org/post/20180524.5816349
Ebola update (14): case update, response, prediction, maps
http://promedmail.org/post/20180523.5812835
Ebola update (13): case update, prevention
http://promedmail.org/post/20180521.5809540
Ebola update (12): update, USA, response
http://promedmail.org/post/20180520.5806396
Ebola update (11): WHO, vaccination, response
http://promedmail.org/post/20180519.5805133
Ebola update (10): urban case Congo DR, response, support
http://promedmail.org/post/20180517.5801917
Ebola update (09): update, alerts, prevention
http://promedmail.org/post/20180516.5799567
Ebola update (08): summary, emergency plan, vaccine, roads
http://promedmail.org/post/20180515.5797415
Ebola update (07): Congo DR, nurse, Uganda susp, WHO, border, vaccine
http://promedmail.org/post/20180513.5795881
Ebola update (06): Congo DR, susp, RFI, vulnerability, response,
control http://promedmail.org/post/20180512.5794300
Ebola update (05): Congo DR, outbreak update, vaccine, preparedness,
research http://promedmail.org/post/20180511.5792856
Ebola update (04): Nigeria, Kenya, Congo DR (ET), WHO
http://promedmail.org/post/20180510.5791247
Ebola update (03): Congo DR (ET), WHO
http://promedmail.org/post/20180509.5790577
Ebola update (02): Congo DR (ET)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180508.5789723]
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