Saturday, August 25, 2018

PRO/AH/EDR> Leishmaniasis, cutaneous - Israel (03): animal host, control

LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS - ISRAEL (03): ANIMAL HOST, CONTROL
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Date: Thu 23 Aug 2018
Source: The Times of Israel [summ., edited]
<https://www.timesofisrael.com/health-ministry-blames-local-councils-for-string-of-disease-outbreaks/>


Environmental Protection minister Zeev Elkin announced on Thursday [23
Aug 2018] a plan to curb leishmaniasis, which has spread in Israel in
the past 2 years. Elkin's office said that sandflies, which transmit
the disease to humans, get the virus [sic] by stinging rock hyraxes
who carry it.

Therefore, according to Hadashot [TV News], the ministry was dropping
the hyrax from the list of protected animals for 3 years to enable
authorities to decrease their numbers and contain the disease, which
doesn't have a vaccine.

The Nature and Parks Authority and some in the Environmental
Protection Ministry were said to have opposed the move, fearing the
harm done to the animal would be too severe.

[Byline: Michael Bachner]

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Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
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[For the leishmaniasis page of Israel's Ministry of Environmental
Protection, including information and pictures of rock hyraxes
(_Procavia capensis_), which serve as reservoir hosts for _Leishmania
tropica_, one of the 2 causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis in
Israel, please see
<http://www.sviva.gov.il/English/env_topics/Pest%20Control/Pages/Sand-Fly-and-Leishmania.aspx>.
Rock hyraxes are found in rocky areas of Judea, Samaria, and the
Galilee (map included).

The step undertaken by the ministry, decided upon following further
spread of the disease, has caused lively debate in Israel's media and
social networks.

For an alternative approach to tackle the hyrax population dynamics,
which is currently in early investigation phase, see
<http://campusteva.tau.ac.il/eng/content/new-research-system-zoological-garden-rock-hyraxes-and-leishmania-parasite>.

A 2008 WHO review of Israel's leishmaniasis situation is available at
<http://www.who.int/leishmaniasis/resources/ISRAEL.pdf>. Since 2008,
cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis have increased their spread in
the country. - Mod.AS

It is proposed to control the sandfly population by adding piperonyl
to feeds for the Rock hyraxes instead of reducing the population of
rock hyraxes. This strategy has two concerns: 1. to distribute the
piperonyl tainted food pellets to the wild rock hyrax population, and
2. the piperonyl is not in itself an insecticide which kills the
sandfly. Piperonyl inhibits enzymes in the sandfly (and mosquitoes)
that break down other insecticides, for instance the pyrethroids. Thus
piperonyl has little effect if there is no resistance to the
pyrethroids. Data are also needed on the blood levels obtained after
such haphazard administration (tainted food pellets). - Mod. EP

HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Israel: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/90>]

[See Also:
Leishmaniasis, cutaneous - Israel (02): spread
http://promedmail.org/post/20180722.5919883
Leishmaniasis, cutaneous - Israel: spread
http://promedmail.org/post/20180721.5918769
2015
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Leishmaniasis, cutaneous - Israel (02): (Jerusalem) wildlife reservoir
http://promedmail.org/post/20151223.3887577
Leishmaniasis, cutaneous - Israel
http://promedmail.org/post/20150516.3365512
2012
----
Leishmaniasis, cutaneous, visceral - Israel (02)
http://promedmail.org/post/20120925.1308324
Leishmaniasis, cutaneous - Israel
http://promedmail.org/post/20120902.1277142
2011
----
Leishmaniasis, cutaneous - Israel
http://promedmail.org/post/20110130.0362]
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