Monday, August 20, 2018

PRO/AH/EDR> Leptospirosis - Honduras: (CL) nosocomial susp

LEPTOSPIROSIS - HONDURAS: (COLON) NOSOCOMIAL SUSPECTED
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Date: Thu 16 Aug 2018
Source: Once Noticias [in Spanish, machine trans., summ., edited]
<http://www.oncenoticias.hn/seis-casos-leptospirosis-tocoa/>


Authorities of the San Isidro de Tocoa General Hospital, Colón,
confirmed 6 cases of leptospirosis in that community.

The authorities of health region number 6 of Colón, called on the
population to stay alert to this new threat to health. The hospital
spokesman said that 3 of those affected are employees of the health
center and underwent surgery. "After having suspicions in these cases,
it was confirmed by tests that patients suffered from leptospirosis."
The spokesman said.

Leptospirosis is an infection caused by contact with the bacteria
_Leptospira_, which is found in fresh water that has been contaminated
by the urine of [infected] animals. According to studies at the
National Library of Medicine in the United States, leptospirosis does
not spread from one person to another, except in very rare cases.
Occasionally it is transmitted through sexual contact, breast milk, or
from a mother to her fetus. The most likely people to contract it are
farmers, farmers, people who live where there is animal husbandry,
people who work in sewers. In the case of infections in the home, it
is more common among people who have pets such as dogs, domestic
livestock, or the presence of infected rodents.

Epidemiologists claim that the center and north of the country present
the greatest risk of presenting an outbreak. Areas that are easily
flooded or where there is sugarcane production are vulnerable.

[Byline: Leandro Rivera]

--
Communicated by
Kathryn Soderholm
<kathryn.soderholm@gmail.com>

[Leptospirosis is spread mainly by contact with fresh, unchlorinated
water, or soil that has been contaminated by the urine of infected
animals or plants contaminated with infected animal urine. Inhalation
of aerosols of contaminated fluids, such as may occur in abattoirs. or
ingestion of foods contaminated with urine of infected animals are
also occasional modes of transmission. Human-to-human transmission is
very rare, but has been documented through sexual intercourse,
breastfeeding, and mother to fetus
(<https://www.cdc.gov/leptospirosis/pdf/fs-leptospirosis-clinicians-eng-508.pdf>).

Because humans excrete viable _Leptospira_ in the urine for only a few
weeks after the onset of clinical symptoms, and _Leptospira_ are found
in blood or CSF for only the first 7-10 days of symptoms, nosocomial
transmission to healthcare workers is possible, but unusual; the CDC
lists this disease as requiring "standard" type of hospital infection
control precautions, although at this site CDC says that leptospirosis
is "not transmitted from person to person"
(<https://www.cdc.gov/infectioncontrol/guidelines/isolation/appendix/type-duration-precautions.html>).

We are not told if the 3 hospital employees with leptospirosis in the
news report above had patient or clinical laboratory contact that
would put them at risk of nosocomial leptospirosis.

Tocoa, with a population of 94 120 in 2015, is a city in the northern
Honduran department of Colón slightly inland on the right bank of the
Aguán River (<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tocoa,_Colón>). -
Mod.ML

HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Tocoa, Colón, Honduras:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/25251>]

[See Also:
Leptospirosis - Israel (05): (HZ) recreation, streams, MOH update
http://promedmail.org/post/20180819.5974231
Leptospirosis - Israel (04): (HZ) recreation, streams, animal
reservoir http://promedmail.org/post/20180818.5973544
Leptospirosis - Israel (03): (HZ) streams, German tourist, early
patient http://promedmail.org/post/20180817.5970939
Leptospirosis - Israel (02): (HZ) recreation, streams, background
http://promedmail.org/post/20180815.5968110
Leptospirosis - Israel: (HZ) recreation, streams, alert
http://promedmail.org/post/20180815.5966453
Leptospirosis - India (02): (KL)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180714.5905791
Leptospirosis - India: (KL)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180624.5873184
Leptospirosis - Sri Lanka: increase
http://promedmail.org/post/20180613.5854280
Leptospirosis - France: (AC): fatal, swimmer, triathletic training
http://promedmail.org/post/20180531.5829928
Leptospirosis - Reunion Island (03): more cases
http://promedmail.org/post/20180527.5821275
Leptospirosis - Reunion Island (02): more cases
http://promedmail.org/post/20180414.5746842
Leptospirosis - Reunion Island
http://promedmail.org/post/20180325.5708610
Leptospirosis, melioidosis - Australia: (QL) flooding, alert
http://promedmail.org/post/20180310.5678104
Leptospirosis - USA: (CA) canine
http://promedmail.org/post/20180114.5559509]
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