Sunday, August 26, 2018

PRO/AH/EDR> Strangles, equine - USA (06): (MI)

STRANGLES, EQUINE - USA (06): (MICHIGAN)
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International Society for Infectious Diseases
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Date: Fri 24 Aug 2018
Source: The Daily News [edited]
<https://thedailynews.cc/articles/equine-strangles-case-in-unvaccinated-horse-at-montcalm-county-4-h-fair/>


An unvaccinated 10-year-old quarter horse mare developed a fever and
lack of appetite while attending the Montcalm County Fair this past
June [2018]. The horse was isolated and placed under veterinary care.
The horse developed nasal discharge and draining submandibular lymph
nodes (glands) after the fair.

Melanie Rodenhouse, a Montcalm County 4-H horse leader, said the local
horse is now fine. The barns, grounds, fences, gates and all
horse-related equipment were disinfected in accordance with Michigan
Department of Agriculture & Rural Development (MDARD) standards and
all horse shows were postponed for 2 weeks after the incident.

A total of 12 horses have been diagnosed with equine strangles in
Michigan this year [2018], including an unvaccinated 13-year-old
quarter horse in Shiawassee County and 2 adult Arabian geldings from
the same farm in Wayne County. No quarantines were issued with any of
the cases, according to MDARD.

According to Megan Sprague, a communications representative with
MDARD, strangles isn't a new disease, but MDARD started reporting
cases this year [2018]. "Strangles is a common horse disease," Sprague
explained. "It didn't use to be reportable, but it was made reportable
for the purpose of tracking and keeping data for educational
purposes."

Strangles is a bacterial infection affecting the respiratory system,
according to MDARD veterinarian Dr. Cheryl Collins. "It causes
abscesses in the lymph nodes under the horse's jaw. Typically, they'll
get fairly large, burst open, puss will come out of the nose and drain
out of the abscesses," Collins explained.

Signs include fever, swollen lymph nodes, nasal discharge or pus
draining from the abscesses.

Collins said she, other veterinarians and horse owners deal with
equine strangles annually and it's not uncommon. The new reportable
status is just giving the disease more attention.

"On a national level, they wanted us to track cases on it," Collins
said. "We put diseases on (the reportable diseases list) for a variety
of reasons, and one is we have to report where the disease is at."

Collins hopes an increased awareness of equine strangles reminds horse
owners to practice better biosecurity and makes them more vigilant on
checking their animals.

[Byline: Meghan Nelson]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[This disease spreads very rapidly. We applaud the BLM for taking the
health of the horses, these as well as those they may come into
contact with, seriously.

_Streptococcus equi equi_ is highly contagious and produces high
morbidity and low mortality in susceptible populations. Transmission
occurs via fomites and direct contact with infectious exudates.
Carrier animals are important for maintenance of the bacteria between
epizootics and initiation of outbreaks on premises previously free of
disease. Survival of the organism in the environment is dependent on
temperature and humidity; it is susceptible to desiccation, extreme
heat, and exposure to sunlight, and must be protected within mucoid
secretions to survive. Under ideal environmental circumstances, the
organism can survive 7-9 weeks outside the host. Paddocks and barn
facilities used by infected horses should be regarded as contaminated
for about 2 months after resolution of an outbreak.

The incubation period of strangles is 3-14 days and the 1st sign of
infection is fever (103-106 deg F/39.4-41.1 deg C). Within 24-48 hours
of the initial fever spike, the horse will exhibit signs typical of
strangles, including mucoid to mucopurulent nasal discharge,
depression, and submandibular lymphadenopathy.

Portions of this comment were extracted from
<http://www.merckvetmanual.com/respiratory-system/respiratory-diseases-of-horses/strangles-in-horses>.
- Mod.TG

HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Michigan, United States: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/225>]

[See Also:
Strangles, equine - USA (05): (ID)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180726.5928206
Strangles, equine - USA (04): (NY)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180719.5915449
Strangles, equine - USA (03): (MI)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180705.5888795
Strangles, equine - Canada (03): (NB)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180607.5843215
Strangles, equine - Canada (02): (NB)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180526.5820974
Strangles, equine - Canada (NS)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180522.5812572
Strangles, equine - USA (02): (FL)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180303.5662307
Strangles, equine - USA: (MI)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180215.5630696
2017
----
Strangles, equine - USA (05): (FL) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20171211.5494925
Strangles, equine - USA (04) (GA) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20171101.5419219
Strangles, equine - Australia: (VI)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170730.5214761
Strangles, equine - USA (03): (FL) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20170710.5162049
Strangles, equine - USA (02): (CO)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170505.5014775
Strangles, equine - USA: (CO) alert
http://promedmail.org/post/20170317.4906771
Equine herpesvirus & strangles - USA: (NV) equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20170224.4860983
Strangles, equine - UK: (England)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170214.4839273
2016
----
Strangles, equine - Australia (02): (QL)
http://promedmail.org/post/20161223.4720720]
.................................................sb/tg/ao/lxl
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