Sunday, August 19, 2018

PRO/AH/EDR> West Nile virus (18): Middle East (Israel) mosquitoes positive

WEST NILE VIRUS (18): MIDDLE EAST(ISRAEL) MOSQUITOES POSITIVE
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Date: Tue 16 Aug 2018 9:56 am IDT
Source: Hamodia [edited]
<https://hamodia.com/2018/08/16/west-nikl/>


The Environment Ministry has issued orders to local authorities around
the country to act to reduce the mosquito population in their
jurisdictions, after mosquitoes infected with West Nile virus were
discovered at a number of locations in Israel. The infected mosquitoes
were discovered in areas that included Pardes Chana, Caesarea,
Binyamina, and the Menashe [Haifa district], Mateh Yehudah [Jerusalem
district] and Gezer [Central district] regional councils.

The infected mosquitoes were discovered over the past 2 weeks in
routine inspections by the ministry. However, officials said, because
the infected mosquitoes were found in distinct geographic regions, it
is likely that they are present in other areas. The ministry ordered
that pesticides and other materials be sprayed in rural and suburban
areas around the country to prevent further spread of the disease.

Dr Uri Shalom of the ministry said that residents should avoid
collected water sources in backyards and on the sides of roads, as
well as in parks and bomb shelters -- anywhere standing water could
harbor mosquito nests. The use of anti mosquito creams and formulas is
also encouraged, as is wearing long-sleeved clothing and avoiding
shorts. The virus is spread by mosquitoes that have fed on birds and
animals infected with West Nile virus, and it is then transmitted to
humans when mosquitoes bite them.

[Byline: Dror Halavy]

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Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
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[West Nile virus (WNV) is endemic in Israel, with 40-160 cases
reported annually. One of the primary routes of WNV transmission is
via migrating birds and Israel is located on a central migratory path
between Africa and Eurasia (Leshem Y, Yom-Tov Y. Routes of migrating
soaring birds in Israel. International J Avian Sci. 1998; 140: 41-52).
Most West Nile fever (WNF) cases reported in recent years were among
residents of the coastal plain (Bassal R, Shohat T, Kaufman Z, et al.
The seroprevalence of West Nile Virus in Israel: A nationwide cross
sectional study. PLoS One. 2017; 12(6): e0179774. doi:
10.1371/journal.pone.0179774;
<https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0179774>)

Diverse WNV lineages clades and clusters has been isolated from
mosquitoes in Israel during the past 15 years and the Mediterranean
subtype of WNV lineage 1 has been found to permanently circulate in
the region (Lustig Y, Hindiyeh M, Orshan L, et al. Mosquito
surveillance for 15 years reveals high genetic diversity among West
Nile Viruses in Israel. J Infect Dis. 2016; 213: 1107-14.
pmid:26597260;
<https://academic.oup.com/jid/article/213/7/1107/2912151>).

A nationwide cross sectional study by Bassal et al, reported high
(11.1 percent) seroprevalence of WNV in Israel in 2017
(<https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0179774>).

As no WNV vaccine is currently available for humans, the most
effective way to avoid WNV infections is to raise the awareness of the
population on reducing the risk of mosquito bites by using insect
repellents, wearing protective clothing, and reducing mosquito
breeding sites. At the national level, the mosquito surveillance
program can help minimize the transmission of the virus all over
Israel, but should focus especially at high risk areas. - Mod.UBA

HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Israel:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/90>]

[See Also:
The following related ProMED-MENA posts can be at
<http://www.promedmail.org/mena>

West Nile virus: research on vaccine
http://promedmail.org/post/20180131.5597820
2016
----
West Nile virus - Israel: infected mosquitoes /
http://promedmail.org/post/20160922.4506268
2015
----
West Nile virus - Israel (02): (HM) MOH alert
http://promedmail.org/post/20150908.3630937
West Nile virus - Israel: (HaDarom, Tel Aviv) infected mosquitoes
http://promedmail.org/post/20150522.3379322
West Nile virus - Europe (05): Portugal, equine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20150904.3624767
West Nile virus - Europe (04): France, equine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20150902.3619529
West Nile virus - Europe (03)
http://promedmail.org/post/20150815.3581063
West Nile virus - Europe (02):
http://promedmail.org/post/20150815.3579273
West Nile virus - Europe: Bulgaria
http://promedmail.org/post/20150705.3487531
2014
----
West Nile virus - Israel http://promedmail.org/post/20140811.2680134
2012
----
West Nile virus - Eurasia (15): Israel, human, equine
http://promedmail.org/post/20121113.1407602
2011
----
West Nile virus - Israel: 2005-2010
http://promedmail.org/post/20110623.1922
2010
----
West Nile virus - Netherlands ex Israel
http://promedmail.org/post/20100827.3049
West Nile virus - Israel http://promedmail.org/post/20100802.2598
2007
----
West Nile virus, equine - Israel
http://promedmail.org/post/20070925.3176
West Nile virus - Israel (North District) (02)
http://promedmail.org/post/20070914.3054
West Nile virus - Israel (North District)
http://promedmail.org/post/20070907.2956
2005
----
West Nile virus, human - Israel
http://promedmail.org/post/20050731.2228
West Nile virus, birds, migratory - Israel (02)
http://promedmail.org/post/20050205.0391
West Nile virus, birds, migratory - Israel
http://promedmail.org/post/20050203.0377]
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