Monday, August 27, 2018

PRO/PL> Oily spot, pomegranate - India: (MH)

OILY SPOT, POMEGRANATE - INDIA: (MAHARASHTRA)
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Date: Wed 22 Aug 2018 1:51 AM IST
Source: The Financial Express [edited]
<https://www.financialexpress.com/industry/bacteria-blight-affects-pomegranate-quality-in-maharashtra-prices-fall/1287929/>


Pomegranates in Maharashtra have been affected by bacterial blight
(oily spot) disease this [2018] season, causing damage to the fruit's
quality by nearly 50 per cent. As a result, modal prices have dropped,
said [the] chairman, Maharashtra Pomegranate Growers Research
Association. "The oily spot has been caused by the incessant rains in
the state," he said.

The area under pomegranates has increased [in the state] which has led
to an increase in production, but the quality has been affected by
bacterial blight. The size of the fruit has been affected and the
black spots on the fruit have also led to a dip in quality. This
[2018] season is not considered conducive for export.

[Byline: Nanda Kasabe]

--
Communicated by:
Dr G Jackson
Moderator, PestNet
<http://www.pestnet.org>

[Oily spot of pomegranate (also called bacterial blight, black spot)
is caused by the bacterium _Xanthomonas axonopodis_ (Xa) pv.
_punicae_. The disease was first described in India in 1952 and was
only known from that country, until it was recently reported also from
South Africa. The main damage occurs on fruits which develop black
spots and usually split resulting in enormous yield losses. Disease
development and spread are favoured by cloudy weather and intermittent
rainfall, and heavy rains are thought to be a triggering factor for
epidemics.

The pathogen is spread by infected plant material (including fruit,
twigs and cuttings), mechanical means (including insect and human
activities) and wind-splashed rain. Disease management may include use
of clean planting material, phytosanitary measures and bactericidal
sprays containing antibiotics or copper. However, the latter may lead
to rejection of exported fruit by some countries (such as within the
European Union). No commercial pomegranate cultivar has been found to
show any resistance to oily spot.

The disease has become an increasingly serious problem for Indian
pomegranate growers in several states (see previous ProMED-mail posts
below). In Maharashtra, it is the main disease of the crop with 100
per cent infection in some orchards. In Karnataka, it is considered an
epidemic and a threat to the industry with up to 85 per cent incidence
in the north.

Other pathovars of Xa affect a range of crops, for example: pv.s
_citri_ and _aurantifolii_ cause citrus canker which poses a serious
threat to citrus industries worldwide; pv. _allii_ causes bacterial
blight of onion, a serious disease emerging in several tropical and
subtropical areas; pv. _vesicatoria_ causes bacterial spot of tomato
and capsicum.

Maps
India (with states):
<http://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/india/india-political-map.htm> and
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/310>
Maharashtra districts:
<http://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/maharashtra/maharashtra-district.htm>

Pictures
Oily spot affected pomegranate fruit:
<https://www.apsnet.org/publications/imageresources/PublishingImages/2011/FI00143.jpg>,
<https://tinyurl.com/yclmlxkb> (Springer Nature),
<https://mahadhan.co.in/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/Oily_Spot_Disease_Management_in_pomegranate-Google-Docs.png>,
and
<http://www.krishisewa.com/images/articles/2014/april/Pomegranate4.jpg>
Oily spot, leaf & stem symptoms:
<http://www.apsnet.org/publications/imageresources/PublishingImages/2011/FI00141.jpg>,
<https://tinyurl.com/ybf548wx> (Springer Nature), and
<https://tinyurl.com/y8ncrzjw> (Springer Nature)
Healthy pomegranate tree:
<http://www.californiagardens.com/images/Pomegranate-wonderful.jpg>

Links
Additional news story:
<http://www.freshplaza.com/article/199907/Bacteria-blight-affects-pomegranates-in-Maharashtra>
Oily spot disease and management information:
<http://www.apsnet.org/publications/imageresources/Pages/FI00143.aspx>,
<http://www.researchjournal.co.in/online/IJPS/IJPS%2010(1)/10_19-23_A.pdf>,
<http://www.actahort.org/books/818/818_43.htm>,
<https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-81-322-2571-3_11>, and
via
<http://www.krishisewa.com/cms/disease-management/398-pomegranate-diseases.html>
_X. axonopodis_ pv. _punicae_ taxonomy:
<http://www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/487838>
- Mod.DHA]

[See Also:
Undiagnosed blights, grapevine & pomegranate - India: (KA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180508.5789130
2015
----
Oily spot, pomegranate - India: (MH)
http://promedmail.org/post/20150730.3546876
2014
----
Oily spot, pomegranate - India: (KA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20140430.2439412
2011
----
Oily spot, pomegranate - India: (MH) update
http://promedmail.org/post/20110420.1233
2009
----
Oily spot, pomegranate - India (02): (KA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20091120.3993
Oily spot, pomegranate - India: research
http://promedmail.org/post/20090820.2946
2008
----
Oily spot, pomegranate - India: update
http://promedmail.org/post/20080526.1720
Undiagnosed disease, pomegranate - India
http://promedmail.org/post/20080218.0648
2007
----
Oily spot, pomegranate - India: (Maharashtra)
http://promedmail.org/post/20071123.3789
and additional items on Xa diseases in the archives]
.................................................sb/dha/mj/dk
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