Tuesday, August 28, 2018

PRO/PL> Peanut stunt virus, bean - Bulgaria: 1st rep

PEANUT STUNT VIRUS, BEAN - BULGARIA: FIRST REPORT
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Date: Fri 17 Aug 2018
Source: New Disease Reports [edited]
<https://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=038009>


[Ref: G Pasev et al (2018): First report of _Peanut stunt virus_ on
beans in Bulgaria. New Disease Reports 38, 9; DOI:
10.5197/j.2044-0588.2018.038.009]
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Common bean (_Phaseolus vulgaris_) in Bulgaria [was] grown on 708 ha
[about 1750 acres] in 2016. During the summer of 2013, leaf samples
(n=76) with virus-like symptoms were collected from bean plants in
fields and private gardens. Disease incidence varied from 10 to 50 per
cent. Symptoms consisted of green or yellow mosaic, blisters, and leaf
distortion. In some locations the disease was associated with severe
stunting.

DAS/TAS-ELISA tests revealed the presence of _Bean common mosaic
virus_ (BCMV), _Cucumber mosaic virus_ (CMV), _Bean yellow mosaic
virus_ (BYMV), and _Clover yellow vein virus_ (ClYVV) in the majority
of the samples. However, 3 samples were positive for _Peanut stunt
virus_ (PSV) and were traced to fields in which stunting symptoms were
prevalent.

Electron microscopy revealed isometric particles approximately 28 nm
in diameter. RT-PCR of bean extracts was performed using specific
primers [and] amplicons of the expected size (651 bp) were obtained
from the coat protein region for all 3 PSV isolates. Sequencing
confirmed the identification of PSV. Phylogenetic analysis of all PSV
isolates currently published in the NCBI database placed all 3
Bulgarian isolates in the Western subgroup (II), typified by the
American PSV-W isolate.

PSV is known to cause severe infections on legumes worldwide. As a
non-persistently transmitted aphid-borne cucumovirus, it might spread
to other legumes including forage crops in Bulgaria. Monitoring
infection of natural hosts would provide additional information about
the epidemiology of the virus in Eastern Europe. To our knowledge this
is the first report of PSV in the country and the second report of the
occurrence of the Western strain of PSV in Europe.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[_Peanut stunt virus_ (PSV; genus _Cucumovirus_) has been reported to
infect legumes (including bean), as well as some other hosts including
solanaceous and cucurbit species. It is spreading in parts of Europe,
eastern Asia, northern Africa and North America. An Eastern and a
Western group of strains have been designated according to different
symptoms caused in bean and pea indicator varieties. Some sequence
variations of satellite RNAs associated with PSV have been found to be
able to modulate the symptoms induced in the host.

PSV is transmitted by several aphid species (including some _Aphis_
and _Myzus_ spp.). The aphids can acquire the virus in seconds. PSV
does not accumulate in the vector and insects remain infectious for
only a short period of time (non-persistent mode of transmission).
Seed transmission of PSV has been reported, for example at a low rate
in peanut. The virus can also be spread with infected plant material
and by mechanical means. Disease management is difficult, since aphid
vectors and virus reservoirs are widespread. Use of certified virus
free planting material is essential. Control of weeds surrounding
cropped fields may also be helpful.

Maps
Bulgaria:
<http://bulgaria-map.info/maps/Bulgaria_Cities_Map.gif> and
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/81>
Europe, overview:
<http://www.edinphoto.org.uk/0_MAPS/0_map_europe_political_2001_enlarged.jpg>

Pictures
PSV symptoms on peanut:
<https://bugwoodcloud.org/images/768x512/5265074.jpg>,
<https://bit.ly/2oi2Mn0> (Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services),
<https://bugwoodcloud.org/images/768x512/5265067.jpg>,
<http://www.bitkisagligi.net/Fasulye/fasulyeresim/PeanutStuntVirus.gif>,
and
<https://bit.ly/2MUCKUO> (Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services) (affected field)
PSV on bean:
<https://bit.ly/2ogUbB1> (Bean IPM)
PSV on clover:
<https://d1k5w7mbrh6vq5.cloudfront.net/images/cache/d6/e5/17/d6e5176236d64b9e8c17601661eee22b.jpg>
PSV photo gallery:
<https://www.ipmimages.org/browse/subthumb.cfm?sub=15311>
Aphids (_Myzus persicae_):
<http://bit.ly/NnIFsS> (Alberta Agriculture and Forestry)

Links
Information on PSV:
<https://www.plantwise.org/KnowledgeBank/Datasheet.aspx?dsid=45670>,
<https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/PSV000>,
<http://www.dpvweb.net/dpv/showdpv.php?dpvno=092>,
<https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/45670>,
<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1718510>,
<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?lvl=0&id=12313>,
and
<https://www.genome.jp/virushostdb/12313>
Information on genus _Cucumovirus_:
<https://viralzone.expasy.org/135?outline=all_by_species>,
<http://www.dpvweb.net/notes/showgenus.php?genus=Cucumovirus>, and
via
<https://talk.ictvonline.org/ictv-reports/ictv_9th_report/positive-sense-rna-viruses-2011/w/posrna_viruses/251/bromoviridae>
Virus taxonomy via:
<https://talk.ictvonline.org/taxonomy/>
Information on aphids:
<https://bugguide.net/node/view/147/tree/all>,
<https://www.britannica.com/animal/aphid>, and via
<https://projects.ncsu.edu/cals/course/ent425/text18/plantvectors.html>
(as plant virus vectors)
- Mod.DHA]

[See Also:
2002
----
Peanut stunt cucumovirus - USA (FL & GA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20020227.3640
and additional items on cucumoviruses in the archives]
.................................................dha/mj/dk
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