Saturday, September 8, 2018

PRO/AH/EDR> African swine fever - Europe (37): Moldova (SV) domestic, OIE

AFRICAN SWINE FEVER - EUROPE (37): MOLDOVA (STEFAN-VODA) DOMESTIC, OIE
**********************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>

Date: Wed 5 Sep 2018
Source: OIE, WAHID (World Animal Health Information Database), weekly
disease information 2018; 31(36) [edited]
<www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=27837>


African swine fever, Moldova
----------------------------
Information received on [and dated] 5 Sep 2018 from Dr. Vitalie
Caraus, head of the Sanitary Veterinary Surveillance Department,
Sanitary and Veterinary Surveillance Division, National Food Safety
Agency, National Food Safety Agency of the Republic of Moldova,
Chisinau, Moldova

Summary
Report type: Immediate notification
Date of start of the event: 21 Aug 2018
Date of confirmation of the event: 27 Aug 2018
Reason for notification: Recurrence of a listed disease
Date of previous occurrence: 25 Jun 2018
Manifestation of disease: Clinical disease
Causal agent: African swine fever virus
Nature of diagnosis: Clinical, laboratory (advanced), necropsy
This event pertains to a defined zone within the country.

New outbreaks (4)
Outbreak 1: Crocmaz, Stefan-Voda
Date of start of the outbreak: 21 Aug 2018
Outbreak status: Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit: Backyard
Affected animals:
Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Killed and disposed of /
Slaughtered
Swine / 1 / 1 / 1 / 0 / 0
Affected population: The owner of a backyard farm from the village of
Crocmaz notified the territorial subdivision of the competent
authority for food safety about the death of one pig. Pig had typical
signs of African swine fever. Samples were taken on [21 Aug 2018] from
the dead pig. Results were received from the Republican Center for
Veterinary Diagnosis on [27 Aug 2018]; the samples were found positive
using real-time PCR. The dead pig was destroyed.

Outbreak 2: Crocmaz, Stefan-Voda
Date of start of the outbreak: 21 Aug 2018
Outbreak status: Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit: Backyard
Affected animals:
Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Killed and disposed of /
Slaughtered
Swine / 2 / 1 / 1 / 1 / 0
Affected population: The owner of a backyard farm from the village of
Crocmaz notified the territorial subdivision of the competent
authority for food safety about the death of one pig. Pig had typical
signs of African swine fever. Samples were taken on [21 Aug 2018] from
the dead pig, as well as blood samples from the live pig. Results were
received from the Republican Center for Veterinary Diagnosis on 27 Aug
2018; the samples were found positive using real-time PCR. The dead
pig and the live pig were destroyed.

Outbreak 3: Crocmaz, Stefan-Voda
Date of start of the outbreak: 21 Aug 2018
Outbreak status: Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit: Backyard
Affected animals:
Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Killed and disposed of /
Slaughtered
Swine / 1 / 1 / 1 / 0 / 0
Affected population: The owner of a backyard farm from the village of
Crocmaz notified the territorial subdivision of the competent
authority for food safety about the death of one pig. Pig had typical
signs of African swine fever. Samples were taken on [21 Aug 2018] from
the dead pig. Results were received from the Republican Center for
Veterinary Diagnosis on [27 Aug 2018]; the samples were found positive
using real-time PCR. The dead pig was destroyed.

Outbreak 4: Olanesti, Stefan-Voda
Date of start of the outbreak: 27 Aug 2018
Outbreak status: Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit: Backyard
Affected animals:
Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Killed and disposed of /
Slaughtered
Swine / 7 / 7 / 4 / 3 / 0
Affected population: The owner of a backyard farm from the village of
Olanesti notified the territorial subdivision of the competent
authority for food safety about the death of 4 pigs. Pigs had typical
signs of African swine fever. Samples were taken on [27 Aug 2018] from
the dead pigs. Results were received from the Republican Center for
Veterinary Diagnosis on [29 Aug 2018]; the samples were found positive
using real-time PCR. The dead pigs and the live pigs were destroyed.

Summary of outbreaks
Total outbreaks: 4
Total animals affected
Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Killed and disposed of /
Slaughtered
Swine / 11 / 10 / 7 / 4 / 0

Outbreak statistics [rates apparent, expressed as percentages]
Species / Morbidity rate / Mortality rate / Case fatality rate /
Proportion susceptible animals lost*
Swine / 90.91 / 63.64 / 70 / 100
*Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction,
and/or slaughter

Epidemiology
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection: Unknown or
inconclusive

Control measures
Measures applied: movement control inside the country; surveillance
outside containment and/or protection zone; surveillance within
containment and/or protection zone; traceability; quarantine; official
destruction of animal products; official disposal of carcasses,
by-products and waste; stamping out; control of wildlife reservoirs;
zoning; disinfection; disinfestation; vaccination permitted (if a
vaccine exists); no treatment of affected animals
Measures to be applied: No other measures

Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type: Republican Center for Veterinary Diagnosis
(National laboratory)
Species / Test / Test date / Result
Swine / real-time PCR / 27 Aug 2018 / Positive
Swine / real-time PCR / 29 Aug 2018 / Positive

Future reporting
The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.

[The location of the outbreaks can be seen on the interactive map
included in the OIE report at the source URL above.]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

["New introductions of ASF [African swine fever] to areas free of the
disease are usually by uncooked pork fed to pigs. Virus can be
inactivated with temperature and low pH. Survivor animals may play a
role in the transmission and persistence of the disease.

"Infected animals will go through a viremic phase and can shed the
virus through nasal secretions, feces and urine. Therefore, the main
transmission route is oral-nasal, as pigs can be exposed to
ASF-positive secretions or tissues (i.e., pork products). Indirect
transmission can also occur by exposure to contaminated fomites. This
virus can also be transmitted by ticks. This vector-borne route
becomes relevant when the wild boar population is present and moves
across regions and countries. The common introduction route into
ASF-free regions is usually through positive pigs transported into the
area or contaminated pork products that are fed to other pigs. ASFV
[African swine fever virus] has also been detected in air samples;
however, airborne transmission is considered a secondary route of
transmission due to the high virus load needed.

"Although ASFV is highly resistant, the virus can be inactivated at pH
less than 4 and pH more than 11. Survivability outside the host is
heavily related to temperature. For instance, the infectious half-life
in urine and feces can range from 3 to 15 days and 4 to 8 days at 37
deg C and 4 deg C, respectively. The virus may persist for several
weeks or months in frozen, fresh or uncooked pork, as well as in
salted dried pork products. In contrast, ASFV is inactivated at high
temperatures (i.e., 70 deg C cooked or canned hams) and in cured or
processed products, such as Spanish cured pork products, after 122 to
140 days of curing. Pigs can become persistently infected, and the
virus can stay viable in their carcasses for up to 6 months.
Therefore, infected carcasses represent a risk to other pigs. More
recently, an investigation simulating a trans-Atlantic shipping of
ASFV-contaminated feed ingredients from Europe proved that viable
virus can be recovered after 30 days.

"ASFV-recovered and subclinically infected pigs become a source of
virus to other pigs. This plays an important role in disease
transmission and persistence in endemic areas, as well as becoming one
of the most important routes of transmission into disease-free zones.
In vivo experiments have revealed an infectious period of moderately
virulent virus isolates ranging from 20 to 40 days. In another in vivo
transmission study, pigs that had been exposed to ASFV 90 days prior
were commingled with naive pigs and the virus was transmitted to naive
pigs. Serological field studies performed in positive regions of
Brazil, the Iberian Peninsula, East Africa, Kenya and Uganda revealed
that there was a very low percentage of seropositive animals one year
after the outbreak. It was hypothesized that those few seropositive
pigs were still carriers and could have been responsible for some of
the newer outbreaks.

"ASF has a complex epidemiology with different routes of transmission
that can involve animals and ticks as direct transmission, and
contaminated clothes, tools and surfaces as indirect transmission.
Thus, early detection and intervention of the diseases are key to
containing disease spread in absence of an effective vaccine."

The above information comes from a special announcement by the
University of Minnesota's Swine Health Information Center (SHIC) dated
7 Sep 2018. The document is available at
<https://umnswinenews.com/2018/09/07/science-page-transmission-and-survivability-of-african-swine-fever-virus/>.
- Mod.CRD

HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Moldova: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/121>]

[See Also:
African swine fever - Asia (12): China (HL) domestic swine, spread,
OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20180905.6009157
African swine fever - Asia (11): China (AH) domestic swine, spread,
OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20180901.6001627
African swine fever - Asia (10): China (AH) domestic swine, spread
http://promedmail.org/post/20180830.5997998
African swine fever - Asia (09): South Korea ex China, contaminated
flight food http://promedmail.org/post/20180826.5988921
African swine fever - Asia (08): China (ZJ) domestic swine, spread,
RFI http://promedmail.org/post/20180825.5987058
African swine fever - Asia (07): China (ZJ) domestic swine, spread,
OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20180823.5983494
African swine fever - Asia (06): China (ZJ) domestic swine, spread
http://promedmail.org/post/20180823.5982897
African swine fever - Asia (05): China (JS) domestic swine, spread,
OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20180820.5976534
African swine fever - Asia (04): China (JS) spread
http://promedmail.org/post/20180819.5975008
African swine fever - Asia (03): China (HE, HL), spread
http://promedmail.org/post/20180817.5969883
African swine fever - Asia (02): China (LN) genotyping, epidemiology
http://promedmail.org/post/20180815.5967476
African swine fever - Asia: China (LN) domestic swine, 1st report, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180803.5945484
African swine fever - Europe (36): Bulgaria (VN) domestic swine, 1st
rep., OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20180903.6005066
African swine fever - Europe (35): Bulgaria (VN) domestic, 1st
outbreak http://promedmail.org/post/20180901.6001419
African swine fever - Europe (34): Romania (BR) domestic swine, spread
http://promedmail.org/post/20180828.5990914
African swine fever - Europe (31): Romania (GL) domestic swine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180801.5939942
African swine fever - Europe (29): Romania (IL, SJ) domestic swine
wild boar OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20180726.5928183
African swine fever - Europe (28): Czech Republic, wild boar
http://promedmail.org/post/20180726.5929487
African swine fever - Europe (27): EFSA scientific opinion, comment
http://promedmail.org/post/20180714.5903959
African swine fever - Europe (26): Romania, spread, EFSA scientific
opinion http://promedmail.org/post/20180711.5899939
African swine fever - Europe (25): Romania (BH) domestic swine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180709.5895588
African swine fever - Europe (24): Romania, domestic, spread, concern
http://promedmail.org/post/20180706.5890974
African swine fever - Europe (23): Ukraine, domestic swine, wild boar,
OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20180706.5890094
African swine fever - Europe (22): Romania (CT) domestic swine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180705.5890073
African swine fever - Europe (21): Romania (BR) domestic, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180704.5888639
African swine fever - Europe (20): Romania (TL) domestic swine, spread
http://promedmail.org/post/20180704.5887708
African swine fever - Europe (19): Latvia (SD) domestic
http://promedmail.org/post/20180620.5865002
African swine fever - Europe (18): Romania, domestic swine, wild boar,
OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20180614.5857000
African swine fever - Europe (17): Russia (KN) domestic swine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180614.5853924
African swine fever - Europe (16): Moldova (AN) domestic, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180612.5852549
African swine fever - Europe (15): Ukraine, domestic, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180606.5841307
African swine fever - Europe (14): Hungary (SZ) wild boar, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180522.5810185
African swine fever - Europe (13): Moldova (TA), domestic, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180519.5805964
African swine fever - Europe (12): Moldova (GA), domestic, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180512.5794703
African swine fever - Europe (11): Ukraine, domestic, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180505.5786129
African swine fever - Europe (10): Moldova, domestic, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180428.5771344
African swine fever - Europe (09): Hungary, wild boar, 1st rep., OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180424.5765306
African swine fever - Europe (08): Ukraine, wild boar, domestic, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180402.5724317
African swine fever - Europe (07): Poland, wild boar, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180323.5704653
African swine fever - Europe (06): Poland, wild boar, spread
http://promedmail.org/post/20180303.5662244
African swine fever - Europe (05): Moldova, domestic, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180302.5662137
African swine fever - Europe (04): Ukraine, wild boar, domestic, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180227.5652766
African swine fever - Europe (03): Ukraine, wild boar, domestic swine,
OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20180129.5592319
African swine fever - Europe (02): Romania domestic, Latvia wild boar,
OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20180112.5555485
African swine fever - Europe: Czech Republic, wild boar, spread, alert
http://promedmail.org/post/20180108.5545415
2017
----
African swine fever - Europe (32): Moldova, domestic swine, wild boar,
OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20171209.5493397
African swine fever - Europe (17): Romania (SM) domestic, 1st rep.,
OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20170801.5218650]
.................................................crd/rd/mpp
*##########################################################*
************************************************************
ProMED-mail makes every effort to verify the reports that
are posted, but the accuracy and completeness of the
information, and of any statements or opinions based
thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in
using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
and its associated service providers shall not be held
responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any
damages incurred as a result of use or reliance upon posted
or archived material.
************************************************************
Donate to ProMED-mail. Details available at:
<http://www.isid.org/donate/>
************************************************************
Visit ProMED-mail's web site at <http://www.promedmail.org>.
Send all items for posting to: promed@promedmail.org (NOT to
an individual moderator). If you do not give your full name
name and affiliation, it may not be posted. You may unsub-
scribe at <http://ww4.isid.org/promedmail/subscribe.php>.
For assistance from a human being, send mail to:
<postmaster@promedmail.org>.
############################################################
############################################################

List-Unsubscribe: http://ww4.isid.org/promedmail/subscribe.php

0 comments:

Post a Comment