Wednesday, September 19, 2018

PRO/AH/EDR> West Nile virus (40): Europe (Slovenia) crow, 1st rep, OIE

WEST NILE VIRUS (40): EUROPE (SLOVENIA) CROW, FIRST REPORT, OIE
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Date: Mon 17 Sep 2018
Source: E, WAHID (World Animal Health Information Database), weekly
disease information 2018; 31(38) [edited]
<http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=27990>


West Nile fever, Slovenia
-----------------------
Information received on [and dated] 17 Sep 2018 from Dr Janez Posedi,
Director General, Administration of the Republic of Slovenia for Food
Safety, Veterinary Sector and Plant Protection (AFSVSPP), Ministry of
Agriculture, Forestry and Food, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Summary
Report type: immediate notification
Date of start of the event: 13 Sep 2018
Date of confirmation of the event: 13 Sep 2018
Report date: 17 Sep 2018
Date submitted to OIE: 17 Sep 2018
Reason for notification: 1st occurrence of a listed disease in the
country
Causal agent: West Nile fever virus
Nature of diagnosis: clinical, laboratory (basic and advanced),
necropsy
This event pertains to a defined zone within the country.

New outbreaks (1)
Summary of outbreaks
Total outbreaks : 1
Outbreak 1: Ljubljana, Ljubljana
Date of start of the outbreak: 13 Sep 2018
Outbreak status: resolved 13 Sep 2018
Epidemiological unit: other
Total animals affected
Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Killed and disposed of /
Slaughtered
Hooded crow: _Corvus cornix_ (Corvidae) / - / 1 / 0 / 1 / 0
Affected population: one diseased hooded crow was found in Ljubljana.

Outbreak statistics [rates apparent, expressed as percentages]
Species / Morbidity rate / Mortality rate / Case fatality rate /
Proportion susceptible animals lost*
Hooded crow: _Corvus cornix_ (Corvidae) / ** / ** / 0.0 / **
*Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction,
and/or slaughter
** Not calculated because of missing information

Epidemiology
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection: unknown or
inconclusive
Epidemiological comments: the test for West Nile fever virus is
performed as differential diagnosis when animals show neurological
signs or in case of higher mortality.

Control measures
Measures applied: vaccination permitted (if a vaccine exists); no
treatment of affected animals
Measures to be applied: no other measures

Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type / Species / Test / Test date / Result
National veterinary institute (national laboratory) / hooded crow /
gene sequencing / 13 Sep 2018 / Positive
National veterinary institute (national laboratory) / hooded crow /
reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) / 13 Sep 2018
/ Positive

Future reporting
The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.

[The location of the outbreak can be seen on the interactive map
included in the OIE report at the source URL above.]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[The presence of West Nile virus (WNV) in Europe was first recorded in
1958. Since then, the virus has caused sporadic cases and outbreaks of
human and equine disease, predominantly in Southern countries.

In Europe, WNV circulates in resident and migratory birds,. Despite
its high virulence in birds in North America (especially crows), WNV
circulates relatively harmlessly in the Old World, presumably
reflecting co-evolution of virus and host over a long period (Gould E,
Higgs S, Buckley A, Gritsun T. Potential arbovirus emergence and
implications for the United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006; 12(4):
549-55; <https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051010>).

The crow infected by WNV reported here, however, was found dead. We do
not have information about the signs and lesions of this crow, which
could indicate whether the death of this animal was due to WNV.

This is the 1st report of WNV in Slovenia. A few years ago, mosquitoes
sampled in adjacent regions (north eastern Italy) were found to be
infected by the virus (Savini G, Capelli G, Monaco F, et al. Evidence
of West Nile virus lineage 2 circulation in Northern Italy. Vet
Microbiol. 2012; 158(3-4): 267-73. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.02.018;
<https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.02.018>). - Mod.PMB

HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Ljubljana, Slovenia: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/27984>]

[See Also:
West Nile virus (38): Europe (Romania, Germany ex Italy) ECDC
http://promedmail.org/post/20180918.6032455
West Nile virus (33): Europe (France) equine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180910.6020850
West Nile virus (30): Europe (Italy)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180906.6010814
West Nile virus (29): Europe (Croatia)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180904.6004970
West Nile virus (28): Europe (Romania) equine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180903.6005029
West Nile virus (27): Europe (Serbia)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180902.6002688
West Nile virus (25): Europe (Germany) animal, 1st case, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180831.6000100
West Nile virus (22): Middle East (Israel)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180824.5984197
West Nile virus (21): Europe
http://promedmail.org/post/20180824.5979053
West Nile virus (18): Europe (Greece)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180819.5973173
West Nile virus (15): Europe (Romania)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180815.5964188
West Nile virus (13): Europe (Serbia, Greece)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180811.5957009
West Nile virus (12): Europe (Greece)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180808.5951231
West Nile virus (11): Europe (Italy, Greece)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180801.5938802
West Nile virus (10): Europe (Romania)
http://promedmail.org/post/20180727.5932210
West Nile virus (09): Europe update, Greece
http://promedmail.org/post/20180725.5923178
West Nile virus (08): Europe (Greece) equine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180719.5912641
West Nile virus (06): Europe (Greece) new cases
http://promedmail.org/post/20180628.5881125
West Nile virus (03): Europe (Greece) reemergence, 2017
http://promedmail.org/post/20180423.5762065
West Nile virus (02): neuropathogenesis
http://promedmail.org/post/20180114.5558483
West Nile virus: Europe (France) equine, human, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20180112.5555372
2017
----
West Nile virus - Europe (08): Spain, new strain, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20171028.5410131
West Nile virus (08): Europe (France) ECDC report
http://promedmail.org/post/20171026.5402514
West Nile virus - Europe (07): Portugal, equine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20171009.5369450
West Nile virus - Europe (06): Romania
http://promedmail.org/post/20170904.5288395
West Nile virus - Europe (05): Greece
http://promedmail.org/post/20170828.5276953
West Nile virus - Europe (04): Greece, wild bird mortality
http://promedmail.org/post/20170815.5249172
West Nile virus - Europe (03): Greece (PW)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170812.5244148
West Nile virus - Europe (02): Greece, equine, OIE
http://promedmail.org/post/20170802.5221450
West Nile virus - Europe: Greece (PW)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170726.5200784
and other items in the archives]
.................................................crd/pmb/mj/lm
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