Monday, September 3, 2018

PRO/PL> Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, melon - New Zealand ex Australia: intercept

CUCUMBER GREEN MOTTLE MOSAIC VIRUS, WATERMELON - NEW ZEALAND ex
AUSTRALIA: INTERCEPTION
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Date: Thu 30 Aug 2018
Source: ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) Rural [edited]
<http://www.abc.net.au/news/rural/2018-08-29/new-zealand-suspends-importation-of-australian-cucurbits/10177758>


New Zealand authorities confirmed the detection of Cucumber Green
Mottle Mosaic Virus (CGMMV) on a batch of watermelons from the
Northern Territory and suspended cucurbit imports on August 20. [The
following] week, NZ amended its requirements to allow fruit from
CGMMV-free areas in Queensland to enter the country.

Dianne Fullelove, Australian Melon Association, said the infected
fruit came from a farm found to have CGMMV in 2014. Australian
biosecurity only regard plant matter and soil as methods to spread the
virus, whereas NZ authorities include fruit. As a result, Australian
fruit was not checked for CGMMV before it was exported to NZ.

The Department of Agriculture has now agreed to certify all Australian
curcubits exported to NZ [as] produced on a farm certified CGMMV-free.
The NZ Ministry for Primary Industries has agreed to accept [these]
clearances. Ms Fullelove said the industry was working to reopen the
cucurbit trade with NZ as soon as possible.

[Byline: Daniel Fitzgerald]

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Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[_Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus_ (CGMMV; genus _Tobamovirus_) is
a major pathogen of cucurbit crops with reported yield losses of
around 15 per cent. The virus has a narrow host range. Many strains,
including the type strain occurring in Europe, are limited to
Cucurbitaceae, but some isolates have been reported which can also
affect a number of species in other families, including Amaranthaceae
and Solanaceae. Symptoms vary in different host species and may be
masked in field crops. In cucurbits, they may include severe leaf
mosaic, deformation of vines and leaves, as well as internal fruit
symptoms such as discolouration and rotting of flesh.

CGMMV is both seed and pollen transmitted. It is extremely stable and
can also be spread by mechanical means (human activities, insect
damage, plant-to-plant contact), with contaminated agricultural tools,
infected plant material, contaminated soil and in water. Spread by
specific insect vectors appears doubtful. Disease management may
include removal of virus reservoirs, phytosanitary practices and use
of certified clean seed or other planting material. Transgenic
rootstock lines of some cucurbit crops (such as watermelon) with
resistance to CGMMV have been or are being developed.

Considering the multiple pathways known for transmission of the virus,
NZ would be totally justified to include cucurbit fruit as possible
sources of introduction of CGMMV. In Australia, CGMMV has been
detected repeatedly in Northern Territory, Western Australia and
Queensland in cucurbit crops (including watermelon, pumpkin), cucurbit
seedlings (for example, cucumber) and a number of weed hosts (see
previous ProMED-mail posts listed below).

Maps
New Zealand:
<http://www.backpack-newzealand.com/images/new-zealand-map.gif>
Australia (with states):
<http://ontheworldmap.com/australia/large-detailed-topographical-map-of-australia.jpg>
Oceania, overview:
<http://www.nationsonline.org/maps/oceania_map.jpg>

Pictures
CGMMV affected watermelon fruits:
<http://www.abc.net.au/news/image/5751900-3x2-340x227.jpg> and
<https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/sites/gateway/files/cucumber%20green%20mottle%20mosaic%20virus1.jpg>
CGMMV symptoms on cucurbit leaves and vines:
<http://phamnhatlinh.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/greenmosaic.jpg> and
<http://docsdrive.com/images/academicjournals/ijv/2011/fig2-2k11-1-12.jpg>
(also on _Chenopodium_ indicator)

Links
Additional news story:
<https://www.northqueenslandregister.com.au/story/5618924/nt-melon-disease-found-in-nz/>
Information and description of CGMMV and diseases:
<http://www.dpvweb.net/dpv/showdpv.php?dpvno=154>,
<http://www.plantwise.org/KnowledgeBank/Datasheet.aspx?dsid=16951>,
<http://www.amseed.org/wp-content/uploads/CGMMV-Brochure-rev2-Final-4-22-2014-1.pdf>,
<http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex15624/$file/256_635-1.pdf>
and via
<https://mpi.govt.nz/document-vault/5362>
CGMMV epidemiology and diagnosis:
<http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ppa.12065/full>,
<http://virologyj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1743-422X-8-228>
and
<http://bit.ly/1thsSnp>
CGMMV taxonomy via:
<https://talk.ictvonline.org/taxonomy/>
- Mod.DHA]

[See Also:
2017
----
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus - Australia (02): (QL)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170508.5022236
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus - Australia: (QL) susp.
http://promedmail.org/post/20170227.4868748
2016
----
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus - Australia: (WA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20160728.4375420
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus - Germany
http://promedmail.org/post/20160510.4211865
Cucumber green mottle mosaic, unspecified hosts - Australia: (NT)
http://promedmail.org/post/20160123.3958997
2015
----
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, watermelon - Australia (02): (QL)
http://promedmail.org/post/20150423.3316252
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, reservoirs - Australia: (NT)
survey http://promedmail.org/post/20150226.3195501
2014
----
Cucumber green mottle mosaic, pumpkin - Australia: (NT)
http://promedmail.org/post/20141027.2904033
Cucumber green mottle mosaic, watermelon - Australia (02): 1st rep
(NT) http://promedmail.org/post/20141009.2844854
Cucumber green mottle mosaic, watermelon - Australia: (NT) susp.
http://promedmail.org/post/20140918.2785893
2013
----
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, melon - USA: 1st rep (CA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20131219.2124396]
.................................................sb/dha/msp/mpp
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